Researchers Combine 3D Technologies to Track Land, Aquatic & Avian Species
A team including researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the San Diego Zoo’s Institute for Conservation Research has developed a novel methodology that for the first time combines 3D and advanced range estimator technologies to provide highly detailed data on the range and movements of terrestrial, aquatic, and avian wildlife species.
An image from a sequence of visualizations from analysis to identify home range in 3D of California Condors. The blue and orange colored surfaces show probabilities of male and female birds, respectively. Source: Amit Chourasia, Jeff Tracey, James Sheppard, Glen Lockwood, Mahidhar Tatineni, Robert N. Fisher, and Robert Sinkovits. Collaborative work between the San Diego Supercomputer Center, San Diego Zoo, and U.S. Geological Survey.
A paper detailing the project, called ‘Movement-based Estimation and Visualization of Space Use in 3D for Wildlife Ecology and Conservation’, was published July 2 in the PLoS-ONE online science journal. A video of the project can be viewed on SeedMe at https://www.seedme.org/condor_vis.
From Days to Minutes
“We were able to speed up their software by several orders of magnitude,” said Robert Sinkovits, SDSC’s Director of the Scientific Applications Group, which helps researchers make optimal use of SDSC's larger supercomputers, including Gordon and Trestles. “In this case, calculations that had formerly taken four days to complete were finished in less than half an hour.”
What started as a supercomputing challenge – since 3D modeling is much more computationally data intensive than 2D – actually became an exercise in optimizing codes that makes it possible for the current problems of interest to be done on laptops or even smart phones.
“While the researchers with the San Diego Zoo and USGS came to SDSC for our supercomputing, they stayed for our expertise,” said Sinkovits. “We welcome them to use both our systems and expertise to solve other challenges that were previously considered to be intractable.”
Gordon is being used to create interactive visualizations, and will make it easier for the software developers to explore the impact of algorithmic modifications on the quality of the solution.
The visualization expertise was provided by Amit Chourasia, senior visualization scientist at SDSC.
“We made changes to write the data into a more compact format, which enabled swift output and ingestion,” said Chourasia. “A key goal was to allow the experts to visualize the data directly on Gordon via remote access, as it is essential to minimize data movement and replication especially when data sizes grow. Currently, we’re working to fuse data from various sources such as topography and climate to further aid the understanding of such habitats.”
2D or Not 2D
“Our collaborative research team has created a novel and powerful tool for visualizing and modeling animal home ranges in 3D that harnesses the power of SDSC to fully exploit the increasing size and quality of 3D animal biotelemetry tracking and datasets,” said James Sheppard, a senior researcher within the Applied Animal Ecology Division of the San Diego Zoo’s Institute for Conservation Research, and a member of the research team. “This provides us with deeper insights into patterns of animal space-use and informs strategies for the conservation management of endangered species and their habitats.”
Specifically, the project’s advancement centered on the use of 3D technology for home range estimators, as opposed to traditional 2D systems typically used by ecologists. In a graphic image, the x and y axes denote width and height, while the z axis denotes depth, or vertical movement. The team developed what is called a movement-based kernel density estimator (MKDE) to estimate animal movements.
“We show that analyses and visualization using 3D MKDEs are more accurate and informative than traditional 2D estimators in representing the space use of animals that have a substantive vertical component, such as those that fly, traverse steep terrain, or dive in the water,” said Jeff Tracy, an ecologist at the USGS and lead author of the study.
“Biologists and ecologists are only beginning to recognize the value of incorporating the vertical aspect into analyses, which more realistically represents the space used by an animal,” added Tracy, who developed the key algorithm vital to this research.
One aspect of the study focused on learning more about the range and movements of the California condor. While its population now stands at approximately 400 birds – up from only 22 in the mid- 1980s – conservation efforts to reintroduce this ecologically-important species to its former habitat in the mountains of California and Mexico have been hampered by a lack of understanding about condor movement patterns and habitat use. To address this, the San Diego researchers have been attaching miniaturized GPS biotelemetry units to every condor that it releases into the wild, to gather valuable tracking data.
“We have been calculating home ranges for the tracked condors in three dimensions for the first time using this GPS location data, and our novel density estimator was used to incorporate the vertical component of animal movements into projections of space-use,” said Sheppard.
Although the team successfully developed appropriate algorithms for creating 3D home ranges, actually extending animal home range volumes into 3D is computationally demanding, especially for animals tracked using highly accurate GPS telemetry devices for which high-resolution home ranges should be calculated to capitalize on the fine-scale location data collected.
“It is also highly computationally intensive to generate 3D home ranges from GPS telemetry data collected from animals that occupy habitats encompassing large areas, such as the California condors and giant pandas tracked in the wild by San Diego Zoo Global and its collaborators. These computing challenges are why researchers have typically only analyzed animal ranges in 2D up until now,” said Sheppard.
Using this 3D technology, researchers can link the resulting home range data to customized climate models of condor habitats, also in 3D, to generate high-resolution images of condor spatial behaviors, habitat use, and the climatic conditions that stimulate and modify condor movements.
“This data will be used as a predictive management tool to inform conservation efforts to restore condor populations, particularly with regard to emerging threats such as climate change and wind energy impacts,” added Sheppard.
Big Data and Ecology
On a broader note, Sheppard noted that the field of ecology is entering the era of 'Big Data' so it is imperative that new analytical and visualization tools be developed that can process, manage, and analyze these increasingly large and accurate multidimensional datasets acquired from biotelemetry tracking devices and remote sensing technologies. “Otherwise ecologists and conservation managers may literally not be able to see the forest for the trees,” he said.
In addition to Tracy and Sheppard, researchers for the study included Jun Zhu (University of Wisconsin, Madison); Fuwen Wei (Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing); Ronald Swaisgood (San Diego Institute for Conservation Research); and Robert Fisher (USGS, San Diego).
The California Condor tracking part of the study was funded or supported by San Diego Zoological Global, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Sempra Energy, and Mexico-based organizations including Instituto Nacional de Ecologia, Comision Nacional Para El Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad, Secretaria de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, Wildcoast/Costasalvaje. The Giant Panda research was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, Wildlife Experimental Platform of Chinese Academy of Sciences, and San Diego Zoo Global. Funding and support for the dugong research was provided by CRC Reef, Australian Research Council LIEF Scheme, and James Cook University.
Jan Zverina | Eurek Alert!
Successful calculation of human and natural influence on cloud formation
04.11.2016 | Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main
Invasive Insects Cost the World Billions Per Year
04.10.2016 | University of Adelaide
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water
In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...
The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.
Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
02.12.2016 | Medical Engineering
02.12.2016 | Agricultural and Forestry Science
02.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy