This summer, one of the world’s leading ocean science bodies, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization’s (UNESCO’s) and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) adopted the new international thermodynamic equation of state for seawater called TEOS-10. A complex, dynamic mixture of dissolved minerals, salts, and organic material, seawater has historically presented difficulties in terms of determining its physical chemical properties.
For 30 years, climate models have relied on a series of equations called the International Equation of State of Seawater – or EOS-80, which uses the Practical Salinity Scale of seawater. This equation was used to determine the pressure, volume, temperature proprieties of seawater. Other thermodynamic properties, including heat capacity, enthalpy and sound speed were obtained using separate equations.
The Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) established a working group to look at the thermodynamic properties of seawater in 2005. The team included scientists from the Leibniz-Institut für Ostseeforschung in Warnemünde (Germany), University of Miami (USA), Desert Research Institute - Nevada System of Higher Education (USA), Bedford Institute of Oceanography (Canada), the Commonwealth Scientific and Research Organization (Australia), the National Oceanographic Centre (United Kingdom) and the Institute of Marine Geology and Chemistry (China).
This committee has established a fresh approach to seawater thermodynamics. The new equation of state is in the form of a comprehensive free energy function that includes all of the thermodynamic properties of seawater. The new thermodynamic equation of state will replace the widely-use EOS-80 with a new set of highly accurate and comprehensive formulas that provide necessary adjustments and clarifications to the original equation. Dr. Rainer Feistel, from the Leibniz-Institut, is widely recognized as the pioneer in developing the new free energy function.
“The previous International Equation of State of Seawater, which expresses the density of seawater as a function of Practical Salinity, temperature and pressure, served the oceanographic community well for three decades,” said Dr. Frank Millero, professor of Marine and Atmospheric Chemistry at the University of Miami’s Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, who is the only member of the EOS-80 work group on the current team. “However, the new equation uses Absolute Salinity and is a compact ‘one-stop-shop’ of sorts that takes many variables that we hadn’t previously included into account, and allows us to get at more precise numbers, which in turn, will make climate projections even more accurate.”
Since the 1970’s more than 14 graduate students, three undergrads, a high school student and four research technicians have worked on the pressure, volume, temperature and thermodynamic properties of seawater in Millero’s lab at the University of Miami. These include Drs. Rana Fine and Arthur Chen, who have become important contributors to oceanographic science and education.
For more information, visit the IOC’s site on ocean salinity at: ttp://www.ioc-unesco.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=144&Itemid=112About the University of Miami’s Rosenstiel School
Barbra Gonzalez | RSMAS Miami
Joint research project on wastewater for reuse examines pond system in Namibia
19.12.2016 | Technische Universität Darmstadt
Scientists produce a new roadmap for guiding development & conservation in the Amazon
09.12.2016 | Wildlife Conservation Society
Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.
As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...
At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).
Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...
Many pathogens use certain sugar compounds from their host to help conceal themselves against the immune system. Scientists at the University of Bonn have now, in cooperation with researchers at the University of York in the United Kingdom, analyzed the dynamics of a bacterial molecule that is involved in this process. They demonstrate that the protein grabs onto the sugar molecule with a Pac Man-like chewing motion and holds it until it can be used. Their results could help design therapeutics that could make the protein poorer at grabbing and holding and hence compromise the pathogen in the host. The study has now been published in “Biophysical Journal”.
The cells of the mouth, nose and intestinal mucosa produce large quantities of a chemical called sialic acid. Many bacteria possess a special transport system...
UMD, NOAA collaboration demonstrates suitability of in-orbit datasets for weather satellite calibration
"Traffic and weather, together on the hour!" blasts your local radio station, while your smartphone knows the weather halfway across the world. A network of...
Fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) are frequently used in the aeronautic and automobile industry. However, the repair of workpieces made of these composite materials is often less profitable than exchanging the part. In order to increase the lifetime of FRP parts and to make them more eco-efficient, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) and the Apodius GmbH want to combine a new measuring device for fiber layer orientation with an innovative laser-based repair process.
Defects in FRP pieces may be production or operation-related. Whether or not repair is cost-effective depends on the geometry of the defective area, the tools...
10.01.2017 | Event News
09.01.2017 | Event News
05.01.2017 | Event News
16.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering
16.01.2017 | Information Technology
16.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering