Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:


Restoring Grasslands


Ant diversity marks restoration progress

When it comes to restoring grasslands, ecologists may have another way to evaluate their progress—ants.

South Dakota State University graduate student Laura Winkler collects specimens to determine the diversity of ant populations in restored grasslands in eastern South Dakota. Her research will help scientists track the progress of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services restoration efforts.

The more diverse the ant population, the closer a restored section of grassland is to its original state, according to Laura Winkler, who recently completed her master’s degree in plant science, specializing in entomology, at South Dakota State University. When it comes to native grasslands, ants are “ecosystem engineers.”

Ecological role of ants
Ants play many ecological roles, Winkler explained. “They aerate the soil, cycle nutrients and play a role in plant defense and seed dispersal. Ants move more soil than earthworms, plus they are food for lots of reptiles and birds.”

... more about:
»Fish »Restoring »SDSU »Wildlife »ants »diversity »grasslands »species

Some ant species support colonies of plant-feeding insects, such as aphids or plant hoppers, even protecting them from predators. “It’s like having dairy cattle,” Winkler said. Through this technique, the ants consume the sugar-rich honey dew the aphids secrete, much as humans use cow’s milk. When the ants are in need of protein, they simply eat the aphids.

Ants also distribute organic matter by moving dead insects into the colonies and their dead nest mates away from the colonies, Winkler added.

Comparing restored, undisturbed grasslands
Winkler compared tracts of restored grasslands to undisturbed ones at three sites in eastern South Dakota--Sioux Prairie in Minnehaha County, Oak Lake Field Station in Brookings County, and Spirit Mound in Clay County. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service manages the restored areas, while the undisturbed area at Sioux Prairie is managed by the Nature Conservancy, Oak Lake by SDSU and Spirit Mound by the S.D. Game, Fish and Parks Department.

Originally from Des Moines, Iowa, she began working with ants as an undergraduate at Iowa State University focusing on how burning and grazing affect species diversity. Her SDSU graduate research assistantship on ant biodiversity and natural history was funded through the Meierhenry Fellowship. Her research adviser was entomologist Paul J. Johnson, professor of plant science.

Variation with age
The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service sites that had once been crop or pasture land were restored anywhere from one to four years ago, according to Winkler. This involved taking the areas down to the bare ground and then seeding native grasses. Winkler used data from multiple sites taken over a one-year period.

As expected, the younger sites had fewer ant species, with the numbers and diversity increasing over time. The restoration areas at age 1 had seven different species, while at age 2, the number had increased to nine and by age 3 to 10 species, Winkler reported. She expected the fourth year restorations to be even closer to the 17 species present in the undisturbed remnants, but what she saw was a slight decrease to eight species.

“The drought last year and then a wet spring also affects that vegetation, what’s going to survive and how many of the ants are out foraging,” Winkler pointed out.

She suspects that management techniques may also have played a role. “Some sites may have been burned more frequently,” she noted, to control weeds.

“We’ve got a sneak peek of what can happen,” Winkler said, but more long-term research is needed. Based on other research, she anticipates that the restored areas should peak in terms of species diversity within seven to eight years.

Increased specialization
Winkler also looked at how these ant species function. The younger restorations areas tend to have ants that are generalists who can go anywhere, but the older restorations tend to have more specialists, such as soil-dwelling ants, who are more particular about where they live, Winkler explained. The more dominant specialists push out some of the generalists.

“You’ll have ants everywhere,” she pointed out, but the greater the diversity, the more niches are being filled, and the more successful the restoration effort.

About South Dakota State University
Founded in 1881, South Dakota State University is the state’s Morrill Act land-grant institution as well as its largest, most comprehensive school of higher education. SDSU confers degrees from eight different colleges representing more than 175 majors, minors and specializations. The institution also offers 29 master’s degree programs, 13 Ph.D. and two professional programs.

The work of the university is carried out on a residential campus in Brookings, at sites in Sioux Falls, Pierre and Rapid City, and through Cooperative Extension offices and Agricultural Experiment Station research sites across the state.

Christie Delfanian | newswise

Further reports about: Fish Restoring SDSU Wildlife ants diversity grasslands species

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Sea turtles face plastic pollution peril
09.10.2015 | University of Exeter

nachricht NOAA declares third ever global coral bleaching event
08.10.2015 | NOAA Headquarters

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Reliable in-line inspections of high-strength automotive body parts within seconds

Nondestructive material testing (NDT) is a fast and effective way to analyze the quality of a product during the manufacturing process. Because defective materials can lead to malfunctioning finished products, NDT is an essential quality assurance measure, especially in the manufacture of safety-critical components such as automotive B-pillars. NDT examines the quality without damaging the component or modifying the surface of the material. At this year's Blechexpo trade fair in Stuttgart, Fraunhofer IZFP will have an exhibit that demonstrates the nondestructive testing of high-strength automotive body parts using 3MA. The measurement results are available in a matter of seconds.

To minimize vehicle weight and fuel consumption while providing the highest level of crash safety, automotive bodies are reinforced with elements made from...

Im Focus: Kick-off for a new era of precision astronomy

The MICADO camera, a first light instrument for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), has entered a new phase in the project: by agreeing to a Memorandum of Understanding, the partners in Germany, France, the Netherlands, Austria, and Italy, have all confirmed their participation. Following this milestone, the project's transition into its preliminary design phase was approved at a kick-off meeting held in Vienna. Two weeks earlier, on September 18, the consortium and the European Southern Observatory (ESO), which is building the telescope, have signed the corresponding collaboration agreement.

As the first dedicated camera for the E-ELT, MICADO will equip the giant telescope with a capability for diffraction-limited imaging at near-infrared...

Im Focus: Locusts at the wheel: University of Graz investigates collision detector inspired by insect eyes

Self-driving cars will be on our streets in the foreseeable future. In Graz, research is currently dedicated to an innovative driver assistance system that takes over control if there is a danger of collision. It was nature that inspired Dr Manfred Hartbauer from the Institute of Zoology at the University of Graz: in dangerous traffic situations, migratory locusts react around ten times faster than humans. Working together with an interdisciplinary team, Hartbauer is investigating an affordable collision detector that is equipped with artificial locust eyes and can recognise potential crashes in time, during both day and night.

Inspired by insects

Im Focus: Physicists shrink particle accelerator

Prototype demonstrates feasibility of building terahertz accelerators

An interdisciplinary team of researchers has built the first prototype of a miniature particle accelerator that uses terahertz radiation instead of radio...

Im Focus: Simple detection of magnetic skyrmions

New physical effect: researchers discover a change of electrical resistance in magnetic whirls

At present, tiny magnetic whirls – so called skyrmions – are discussed as promising candidates for bits in future robust and compact data storage devices. At...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>



Event News

EHFG 2015: Securing healthcare and sustainably strengthening healthcare systems

01.10.2015 | Event News

Conference in Brussels: Tracking and Tracing the Smallest Marine Life Forms

30.09.2015 | Event News

World Alzheimer`s Day – Professor Willnow: Clearer Insights into the Development of the Disease

17.09.2015 | Event News

Latest News

Unexpected information about Earth's climate history from Yellow River sediment

09.10.2015 | Earth Sciences

Single atom alloy platinum-copper catalysts cut costs, boost green technology

09.10.2015 | Life Sciences

Indefatigable Hearing

09.10.2015 | Life Sciences

More VideoLinks >>>