Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Researchers Explore the Geometry of Cleaning Up the Gulf Coast

20.08.2010
Virginia Tech College of Engineering researchers have received a $60,000 one-year National Science Foundation grant to study how naturally occurring microbes can best be used to eat away remaining crude oil spilled in the Gulf of Mexico. Their choice of weapon: Geometry.

Fueled by oxygen, naturally occurring bacteria can slowly destroy blobs and slicks of crude oil without the use of additional chemicals. Faculty researchers at Virginia Tech’s Charles E. Via Jr. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (http://www.cee.vt.edu/) (CEE) hope to determine if the shape of crude oil remnant – be it a flat syrupy sheet or a tar ball – can affect deterioration rates.

The researchers also will study how a lack of oxygen can hinder microbe growth, and how carbon leaching from dissipating oil can further fuel these oil-eating microbes, a two-step process known as mass transfer and biodegradation. Remaining toxic chemicals left behind by the spill also will be studied at Virginia Tech labs in Blacksburg.

“This research has the potential for improving our understanding of the long-term persistence of chemicals in the environment. In terms of clean up, there are many problems left to solve regarding the most toxic and recalcitrant pollutants that dissolve out of liquid sources, not just associated with oil spills, but at industrial sites, etc.,” says Mark Widdowson, professor and assistant department head of CEE. He is spearheading the research with Amy Pruden-Bagchi, associate professor of CEE.

Widdowson and Pruden-Bagchi stipulate that oil remnants that have the geometric shape of flat surfaces will dissipate slower compared to tar balls that can be “surrounded” by microorganisms. “Each has a unique geometry where the rate of dissolution is controlled by exposed surface area,” Widdowson and Pruden-Bagchi wrote in their grant proposal. “For oil layers, aerobic biodegradation on the underside of the deposit will be severely limited by oxygen availability.”

More than 200 million gallons of oil is estimated to have spilled into the Gulf after the April 20 blowout at BP’s Deepwater Horizon, an incident which also killed 11 people. More than 500 miles of shoreline is affected along the Gulf Coast, which “underscores the urgent need for research that will lead to accurate predictions of the long-term persistence of the crude oil in coastal environments,” the researchers wrote in their proposal. Unknown is how the various chemicals used to more quickly disperse massive bodies of crude oil will affect future oxygen levels. If oxygen levels remain low in high-chemical-use areas, microbes likely will not grow fast.

Remaining crude oil buried by sand, debris or grasses can remain for years. “There are some reports in Alaska, where you can dig a few inches in the ground and find oil left over from the Exxon Valdez spill,” said Pruden-Bagchi of the 1989 incident that spilled anywhere from 11 million to 32 million gallons – numbers vary by source -- of crude oil in the Prince William Sound. “Limited oxygen is a big part of the problem.”

Before the grant was officially awarded, Widdowson and Pruden-Bagchi led a student team to the lower coast of Alabama to collect samples in late July. Additional funding for this trip and the study came from two Virginia Tech research programs, the Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science (ICTAS) and the Institute for Society Culture and the Environment (ISCE).

In Alabama, along oxygen-rich beaches, they found no large oil slicks or massive tar balls, but smaller, raison-shaped chunks of oil with the texture of soft licorice. In oxygen-poor wetland areas, thick, sludgy raisin-shaped balls of oil are still being reported. The researchers already have received assistance from the U.S. Coast Guard and the Environmental Protection Agency in surveying and sampling the crude oil.

“Most of the remaining oil will end up in the marshes and on the sea floor, and may not be obvious as it is on the beaches,” said Pruden-Bagchi. Future trips to the Gulf coast are planned.

Widdowson and Pruden-Bagchi are focused on sharing the information with those handling the Gulf Coast disaster and future oil spills, but also plan to submit their findings for publication in peer-reviewed scientific journals. Pruden-Bagchi also conducted an oil spill clean-up activity for regional middle school students through Virginia Tech’s Imagination summer camp, held in July.

Both lead researchers are familiar with the Gulf Coast. Pruden-Bagchi’s spouse has relatives conducting research at Mobile’s University of South Alabama, while Widdowson has lived in Alabama. “My wife and I both attended Auburn University and occasionally managed to slip away to the Gulf beaches, including Gulf Shores. We were attracted by the beauty of the white sand and crystal clear ocean.”

The College of Engineering (http://www.eng.vt.edu/) at Virginia Tech is internationally recognized for its excellence in 14 engineering disciplines and computer science. The college’s 6,000 undergraduates benefit from an innovative curriculum that provides a “hands-on, minds-on” approach to engineering education, complementing classroom instruction with two unique design-and-build facilities and a strong Cooperative Education Program. With more than 50 research centers and numerous laboratories, the college offers its 2,000 graduate students opportunities in advanced fields of study such as biomedical engineering, state-of-the-art microelectronics, and nanotechnology. Virginia Tech, the most comprehensive university in Virginia, is dedicated to quality, innovation, and results to the commonwealth, the nation, and the world.

Steven Mackay | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.vt.edu

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Global threat to primates concerns us all
19.01.2017 | Deutsches Primatenzentrum GmbH - Leibniz-Institut für Primatenforschung

nachricht Reducing household waste with less energy
18.01.2017 | FIZ Karlsruhe – Leibniz-Institut für Informationsinfrastruktur GmbH

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Traffic jam in empty space

New success for Konstanz physicists in studying the quantum vacuum

An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Sustainable Water use in Agriculture in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

19.01.2017 | Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New Study Will Help Find the Best Locations for Thermal Power Stations in Iceland

19.01.2017 | Earth Sciences

Not of Divided Mind

19.01.2017 | Life Sciences

Molecule flash mob

19.01.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>