Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Researchers Develop Technique to Help Pollution Forecasters See Past Clouds

12.07.2012
Until now, scientists who study air pollution using satellite imagery have been limited by weather. Clouds, in particular, provide much less information than a sunny day.

University of Iowa scientists have created a technique to help satellites "see" through the clouds and better estimate the concentration of pollutants, such as soot. The finding is important, because, like GPS systems, clouds block remote-sensing satellites' ability to detect, and thus calculate, the concentration of pollution nearer to the ground. This includes particles (commonly known as soot) that reduce air quality and affect weather and climate.

The results of the study were published July 9 in the online early edition of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

This image shows two MODIS-Aqua products for Oct. 17, 2008, over the persistent Southeast Pacific stratocumulus deck, off the coasts of Chile and Peru. UI researchers and their colleagues have developed a new technique to evaluate how aerosol pollutants affect clouds, thereby giving scientists the ability to examine clouds and determine particle concentrations in the atmosphere below. Satellite retrievals courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; image courtesy of Pablo Saide, Greg Carmichael, Scott Spak, Matthew Janechek, and Nicholas Thornburg, University of Iowa.

“Particles in the atmosphere (aerosols) interact with clouds changing their properties. With this technique, we can use remote sensing observations from satellites to estimate these cloud properties in order to correct predictions of particle concentrations. This is possible due to a numerical model that describes these aerosol-clouds interactions,” says Pablo Saide, environmental engineering doctoral student and researcher at the UI Center for Global and Regional Research (CGRER).

Scott Spak, co-author and assistant professor of civil and environmental engineering in the UI College of Engineering, adds that the new technique is expected to find immediate application across a wide range of activities. Examples include air quality forecasting, numerical weather prediction, climate projections, oceanic and anthropogenic emissions estimation, and health effects studies.

But the ability to see pollution “through the clouds” is also expected to have “on the ground” health results.

“Unlike previous methods, this technique can directly improve predictions of near-surface, fine-mode aerosols—such as coal-fired electric generating plants and wood-fueled cooking fires—responsible for human health impacts and low-cloud radiative forcing (solar heating),” says Greg Carmichael, co-author, professor of chemical and biochemical engineering, and CGRER co-director. "This technique is also complementary to previous methods used, allowing the observing system to ‘see aerosols’ even under cloudy conditions.”

Here’s how the technique works:

-- Existing weather satellites observe warm, single-layer clouds, such as the stratocumulus clouds that form off the west coasts of Africa, North America, and South America. These clouds are thought to be the main factors contributing to climate cooling.

Researchers calculate the number of droplets in the clouds using the satellite data, which are compared to a model estimate provided by the UI program.

-- As airborne particles interact with clouds changing their properties, model estimates of particles are corrected so that the model will generate a better agreement with the satellite number of droplets.

-- Particles interacting with clouds are usually below clouds, thus, in some cases, the model corrections can be attributed to manmade emissions.

-- The researchers conducted their study using National Science Foundation (NSF) aircraft measurements to make simultaneous cloud and particle observations, which verified satellite observations and the mathematical formulas used to determine the pollution concentrations in the air.

All three UI researchers agree that their new technique for seeing through clouds to make ground observations is likely to generate growing interest as the need to infer ground air pollution levels, and the need to mitigate the human hazards posed, grows larger.

In addition to UI researchers, paper co-authors include Patrick Minnis of NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va., and Kirk Ayers of Science Systems and Applications Inc., Hampton, Va.

The PNAS article is titled “Improving aerosol distributions below clouds by assimilating satellite-retrieved cloud droplet number.”

The research was funded by NSF and NASA.

Gary Galuzzo | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.uiowa.edu

Further reports about: GPS system Iowa NASA NSF PNAS Pollution clouds environmental engineer environmental engineering technique

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht How does the loss of species alter ecosystems?
18.05.2017 | Deutsches Zentrum für integrative Biodiversitätsforschung (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig

nachricht Excess diesel emissions bring global health & environmental impacts
16.05.2017 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Turmoil in sluggish electrons’ existence

An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.

We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...

Im Focus: Wafer-thin Magnetic Materials Developed for Future Quantum Technologies

Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...

Im Focus: World's thinnest hologram paves path to new 3-D world

Nano-hologram paves way for integration of 3-D holography into everyday electronics

An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...

Im Focus: Using graphene to create quantum bits

In the race to produce a quantum computer, a number of projects are seeking a way to create quantum bits -- or qubits -- that are stable, meaning they are not much affected by changes in their environment. This normally needs highly nonlinear non-dissipative elements capable of functioning at very low temperatures.

In pursuit of this goal, researchers at EPFL's Laboratory of Photonics and Quantum Measurements LPQM (STI/SB), have investigated a nonlinear graphene-based...

Im Focus: Bacteria harness the lotus effect to protect themselves

Biofilms: Researchers find the causes of water-repelling properties

Dental plaque and the viscous brown slime in drainpipes are two familiar examples of bacterial biofilms. Removing such bacterial depositions from surfaces is...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

AWK Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium 2017: Internet of Production for Agile Enterprises

23.05.2017 | Event News

Dortmund MST Conference presents Individualized Healthcare Solutions with micro and nanotechnology

22.05.2017 | Event News

Innovation 4.0: Shaping a humane fourth industrial revolution

17.05.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Scientists propose synestia, a new type of planetary object

23.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Zap! Graphene is bad news for bacteria

23.05.2017 | Life Sciences

Medical gamma-ray camera is now palm-sized

23.05.2017 | Medical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>