Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Researchers develop simulation to better understand the effects of sound on marine life

01.09.2010
A combination of the biology of marine mammals, mechanical vibrations and acoustics has led to a breakthrough discovery allowing scientists to better understand the potential harmful effects of sound on marine mammals such as whales and dolphins.

An international team of researchers from San Diego State University, UC San Diego, and the Kolmården Zoo in Sweden has developed an approach that integrates advanced computing, X-ray CT scanners, and modern computational methods that give a 3D simulated look inside the head of a Cuvier’s beaked whale.

“Our numerical analysis software can be used to conduct basic research into the mechanism of sound production and hearing in these whales, simulate exposure at sound pressure levels that would be impossible on live animals, or assess various mitigation strategies,” said Petr Krysl, a UC San Diego structural engineering professor who developed the computational methods for this research. “We believe that our research can enable us to understand, and eventually reduce, the potential negative effects of high intensity sound on marine organisms.”

The results of this research were recently published in a PLoS ONE article entitled, “A New Acoustic Portal into the Odontocete Ear and Vibrational Analysis of the Tympanoperiotic Complex” by Krysl, Ted W. Cranford, an adjunct professor of research in biology at San Diego State University; and Mats Amundin, a researcher at Sweden’s Kolmården Zoo. Sponsors of the research include the office of the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO), Environmental Readiness Division.

The model the researchers have developed creates a 3-dimensional virtual environment in which they can simulate sounds propagated through the virtual specimen and reveal the interactions between the sound and the anatomy. By having a virtual “peek” inside the whale’s head, the scientists are able to better understand and see how sound may impact or potentially harm marine life.

“Humans introduce considerable amounts of sound and noise into the oceans of the world,” Krysl said. “Many marine organisms make acute use of sound for their primary sensory modality because light penetrates so poorly into water. The primary focus of our work is Cuvier's beaked whale because some have stranded and died in the presence of Navy sonar. The discoveries we made with regard to the mechanisms of hearing in the beaked whale also apply to the bottlenose dolphin and, we suspect, to all types of toothed whales and perhaps other marine mammals.”

Krysl and his colleagues have been studying the effects sound has on marine life for the past nine years.

“This research program has a very strong experimental component, which has successfully generated digital models of the anatomy of a beaked whale, and has identified mechanical parameters of the biological tissues in the organs of a beaked whale,” Krysl said. “We are continuing our current line of research on the beaked whale and conducting validation experiments with the bottlenose dolphin. We plan additional modeling refinements that will allow us to investigate the entire sound pathway from the sea water to the entrance to the cochlea. These projects address several primary objectives in the Navy’s plan to understand demographics, acoustic exposure thresholds, and mitigation strategies for living marine resources.”

The area of research that deals with noise in the ocean has indeed been growing rapidly with concerns over the rising levels of ocean noise resulting from shipping, petroleum exploration and production, and military exercises, Krysl said.

“We have recently seen that other researchers are adopting our methodology for analyzing the impact of sound on marine mammals, although we are currently the only group producing significant results,” he said. “This project significantly advances our knowledge of the basic biology of marine mammals. Hearing is an essential sensory ability for life under water – sound is used for hunting, navigating, and social interaction. The applied significance of our research has to do with the Navy’s need to use sonar. Consequently, the Navy needs to be able to answer questions such as, ‘Is sonar safe to use and under what conditions?’ and ‘Can we minimize the impact on marine life and how?’ This is not possible without a basic understanding of biology and acoustics of the ocean inhabitants.”

Andrea Siedsma | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.ucsd.edu
http://www.jacobsschool.ucsd.edu/news/news_releases/release.sfe?id=977

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Species may appear deceptively resilient to climate change
24.11.2017 | University of California - Davis

nachricht Scientists team up on study to save endangered African penguins
16.11.2017 | Florida Atlantic University

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: New proton record: Researchers measure magnetic moment with greatest possible precision

High-precision measurement of the g-factor eleven times more precise than before / Results indicate a strong similarity between protons and antiprotons

The magnetic moment of an individual proton is inconceivably small, but can still be quantified. The basis for undertaking this measurement was laid over ten...

Im Focus: Frictional Heat Powers Hydrothermal Activity on Enceladus

Computer simulation shows how the icy moon heats water in a porous rock core

Heat from the friction of rocks caused by tidal forces could be the “engine” for the hydrothermal activity on Saturn's moon Enceladus. This presupposes that...

Im Focus: Nanoparticles help with malaria diagnosis – new rapid test in development

The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.

Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

IceCube experiment finds Earth can block high-energy particles from nuclear reactions

24.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

A 'half-hearted' solution to one-sided heart failure

24.11.2017 | Health and Medicine

Heidelberg Researchers Study Unique Underwater Stalactites

24.11.2017 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>