Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:


Failing protection of Africa's national parks

For years, wildlife managers and biologists in Africa have known that large mammals were disappearing outside reserves. There are historical accounts describing impressive populations of large mammals resident or migrating through areas that are nowadays devoid of anything bigger than passerines and rodents and that are now perhaps a patchwork of small scale land holdings instead of natural vegetation.

These anecdotes have increasingly been supported by quantitative data showing that wildlife outside national parks and game reserves has declined precipitously over the last 15 years (e.g., Caro et al., 1998; Stoner et al., 2007a). But now a raft of studies are showing that we have moved beyond this to the next step: we are losing species from many of Africa’s national parks – IUCN’s top flight category of protection – and bastion of biodiversity conservation worldwide (Terborgh & Van Schaik, 2002).

Why is this news suddenly? There are two reasons – both methodological. First, long-term datasets are being mined using sophisticated statistical methods that control for a plethora of confounding variables. These include a 40-year time span of monthly transects conducted by park guards in six Ghanaian National Parks (Brashares, 2003), and decade long collections of aerial censuses flown over huge wildlife areas in Kenya and Tanzania (Ottichilo et al., 2000; Stoner et al., 2007b). Secondly, conservation biologists have become less shy of combining and juxtaposing different survey methods to trace a picture of population changes within a single reserve across considerable time frames (Ogutu & Owen-Smith, 2005; Scholte, Adam & Serge, 2007; Van Vliet et al., 2007). Such studies generally focus on antelopes that are relatively easy to count from the air, from a vehicle, on foot, or by means of droppings. Most are delicious to eat.

The causes of these declines are principally anthropogenic and ultimately the result of human population growth, coupled with demands for a higher standard of living. But the proximate factors seem to vary on a case by case basis. Many parks are subject to the ravaging impact of illegal hunters, often local, but sometimes attracted from far away. Examples include Katavi National Park in Tanzania (Stoner et al., 2007b), Ipassa Man and Biosphere Reserve in Gabon (Van Vliet et al., 2007), and Comoé National Park, Côte d’Ivoire (Fischer & Linsenmair, 2007). In West-Central Africa, this bushmeat hunting is often the most common factor pressing upon antelope populations (Fa et al., 2005). In the old days this was for local consumption, now it includes tables in far off cities that, incredibly, extend to London and Paris.

Then there are reserves in which human encroachment, triggered by a galloping local demography or immigration (Scholte, 2003), is the driving force, with livestock infringing reserve boundaries (e.g., Stephens et al., 2001) or people moving into the reserves to farm (e.g., Lejju, 2004). Currently, there is a high profile debate going on in Uganda between sugar growers who want to grow their product in Mabira Forest Reserve 50 kms from Kampala and local conservationists who want to protect endemic bird species there (; five people have died in demonstrations.

Finally, in reserves too small to harbour wildlife populations year-round, multiple factors, natural and anthropogenic, operate in concert to diminish antelope populations. For instance, the crash in herbivores ranging from buffalo Syncerus caffer to giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis to wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus in the Masai Mara National Reserve in Kenya results from a constellation of drought, poaching and increased wheat farm acreage in surrounding areas (Ottichilo et al., 2000).

There seem just a handful of exceptions to these anthropogenically driven declines. In the well-resourced Kruger National Park in South Africa downward trends of herbivore populations can be attributed unequivocally to nonhuman factors, namely dry season rainfall (Ogutu & Owen-Smith, 2005). And some species are even increasing, such as elephants Loxodonta africana faring relatively well inside and outside Eastern and Southern African reserves (Blanc et al., 2007). Arguably Africa’s premier flagship species, elephants receive public attention and attract resources for patrolling and management. But contrary to antelopes, elephants are targeted for bush meat only in Central Africa, while elsewhere the present ivory ban gives them some respite after decades of persecution.

We suspect that the documented herbivore population declines represent only the tip of the iceberg. Antelope populations have generally been poorly surveyed, and with the notable exceptions of the African Journal of Ecology articles quoted here, have failed to present quantitative information. More records must be tapped to quantify wildlife trends, especially in Western, Central and North-eastern Africa, but the new data confirm concerns raised by an earlier, qualitative, continent-wide antelope population assessment (East, 1999).

So what can we do to stop a pervasive diminution of antelope populations across the continent? There is no easy solution. Certainly, conservation biologists have identified a number of factors that promote bush meat consumption including opening up the forest to loggers (Robinson, Redford & Bennett, 1999); difficulties in obtaining other sources of animal protein (Brashares et al., 2004); and increasing standards of living driving demand for wild animals (East et al., 2005). But it is difficult, and in some cases immoral, to try to stop changes occurring at national and sometimes international scales. The old idea of setting aside large tracts of land in remote areas far from human populations is still a viable option in some parts of the continent (Mittermeier et al., 2003), one recently advocated for the extraordinary rediscovery of herbivore migrations in southern Sudan ( But it is a conservation approach increasingly outmoded by land-use change, demographics and policy reform. And, yes, beefed up infrastructure, increased patrols, vehicles, and incentives for park guards, in tandem with community outreach programs, will go some way to stop poaching; whereas internal and external opposition to land greedy development schemes may halt encroachment. What the new data show, however, is even relatively well-organized protected areas cannot be relied on as long-lasting conservation tools, at least for antelopes and their predators. In the final analysis, we may have to get used to faunal relaxation in Africa’s network of famous reserves (Soule, Wilcox & Holtby, 1979; Pullan, 1983) leaving a continent containing isolated pockets of large mammal diversity living at low population sizes. Just like Europe.

Davina Quarterman | EurekAlert!
Further information:

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Dispersal of Fish Eggs by Water Birds – Just a Myth?
19.02.2018 | Universität Basel

nachricht Removing fossil fuel subsidies will not reduce CO2 emissions as much as hoped
08.02.2018 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Space observation with radar to secure Germany's space infrastructure

Satellites in near-Earth orbit are at risk due to the steady increase in space debris. But their mission in the areas of telecommunications, navigation or weather forecasts is essential for society. Fraunhofer FHR therefore develops radar-based systems which allow the detection, tracking and cataloging of even the smallest particles of debris. Satellite operators who have access to our data are in a better position to plan evasive maneuvers and prevent destructive collisions. From April, 25-29 2018, Fraunhofer FHR and its partners will exhibit the complementary radar systems TIRA and GESTRA as well as the latest radar techniques for space observation across three stands at the ILA Berlin.

The "traffic situation" in space is very tense: the Earth is currently being orbited not only by countless satellites but also by a large volume of space...

Im Focus: Researchers Discover New Anti-Cancer Protein

An international team of researchers has discovered a new anti-cancer protein. The protein, called LHPP, prevents the uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells in the liver. The researchers led by Prof. Michael N. Hall from the Biozentrum, University of Basel, report in “Nature” that LHPP can also serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of liver cancer.

The incidence of liver cancer, also known as hepatocellular carcinoma, is steadily increasing. In the last twenty years, the number of cases has almost doubled...

Im Focus: Researchers at Fraunhofer monitor re-entry of Chinese space station Tiangong-1

In just a few weeks from now, the Chinese space station Tiangong-1 will re-enter the Earth's atmosphere where it will to a large extent burn up. It is possible that some debris will reach the Earth's surface. Tiangong-1 is orbiting the Earth uncontrolled at a speed of approx. 29,000 km/h.Currently the prognosis relating to the time of impact currently lies within a window of several days. The scientists at Fraunhofer FHR have already been monitoring Tiangong-1 for a number of weeks with their TIRA system, one of the most powerful space observation radars in the world, with a view to supporting the German Space Situational Awareness Center and the ESA with their re-entry forecasts.

Following the loss of radio contact with Tiangong-1 in 2016 and due to the low orbital height, it is now inevitable that the Chinese space station will...

Im Focus: Alliance „OLED Licht Forum“ – Key partner for OLED lighting solutions

Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, provider of research and development services for OLED lighting solutions, announces the founding of the “OLED Licht Forum” and presents latest OLED design and lighting solutions during light+building, from March 18th – 23rd, 2018 in Frankfurt a.M./Germany, at booth no. F91 in Hall 4.0.

They are united in their passion for OLED (organic light emitting diodes) lighting with all of its unique facets and application possibilities. Thus experts in...

Im Focus: Mars' oceans formed early, possibly aided by massive volcanic eruptions

Oceans formed before Tharsis and evolved together, shaping climate history of Mars

A new scenario seeking to explain how Mars' putative oceans came and went over the last 4 billion years implies that the oceans formed several hundred million...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>



Industry & Economy
Event News

New solar solutions for sustainable buildings and cities

23.03.2018 | Event News

Virtual reality conference comes to Reutlingen

19.03.2018 | Event News

Ultrafast Wireless and Chip Design at the DATE Conference in Dresden

16.03.2018 | Event News

Latest News

For graphite pellets, just add elbow grease

23.03.2018 | Materials Sciences

Unique communication strategy discovered in stem cell pathway controlling plant growth

23.03.2018 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

Sharpening the X-ray view of the nanocosm

23.03.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>