Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Australia under the smoke of South American wildfires

30.04.2007
The carbon monoxide that hangs above Australia during the wildfire season originates largely from South American and not Australian wildfires. That was confirmed with measurements by the Dutch-German satellite instrument SCIAMACHY on the European environmental satellite Envisat. Annemieke Gloudemans from the Netherlands Institute for Space Research (SRON) presented this research last week during the Envisat-conference in Montreux. ‘Good space sensors are vital for mapping emission sources.’

Australia's wildfire season is notorious. Dependent on the aridity, much of the continent is prone to such fires between October and March. The direct consequences for humans and the environment are disastrous, partly due to the toxic carbon monoxide released during the fires. Gloudemans: ‘In the southern hemisphere, incineration of biomass is the biggest source of carbon monoxide in the lower layers of the atmosphere.’

The SCIAMACHY sensors, developed by SRON some ten years ago, are unique because they can detect carbon monoxide throughout the entire atmosphere, from the uppermost layer to the ground. ‘This therefore allows us to map the sources of carbon monoxide and look where they are blown to’, says Gloudemans. ‘We have done that for all of the continents in the southern hemisphere: South America, Australia, and Southern Africa, with surprising results.’

Blown over

With SCIAMACHY, Annemieke Gloudemans and her colleagues at Utrecht University, the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and the Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) saw large quantities of released carbon monoxide above the southern continents. These quantities clearly matched the intensity of wildfires observed by the American satellites EOS-TERRA and EOS-AQUA. ‘Yet we also saw increased concentrations of carbon monoxide above Central Australia, where there is desert’, says Gloudemans. ‘Initially we assumed that the wildfires in North Australia were responsible for this. Yet when we took a closer look at the transport of carbon monoxide, we had to conclude that the majority originated from fires in South America. Even the carbon monoxide above the fires in North Australia originated for one-third from South America.’

New Dutch instrument

‘The only way to accurately follow the emission and transport of carbon monoxide is to use satellites with sensors that are sensitive enough for short-wave infrared radiation. That also applies for methane, after carbon dioxide the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas’, explains Ilse Aben, head of atmospheric research at SRON. ‘SCIAMACHY is currently unique in that area but can only provide a picture of the situation once every month. Moreover Envisat will be decommissioned in about 2010. Unless we work quickly on a successor, we will no longer be able to track the emission and spread of these substances. Moreover in the future, we want to measure carbon monoxide and methane on a daily basis and with a greater degree of sensitivity. Consequently at SRON, we are busy developing sensors for a new Dutch space instrument that will be able to provide a very detailed picture of the composition of the atmosphere.’

The instrument, TROPOMI, must gain a place on the earth observation mission TRAQ that is being studied by the European Space Agency (ESA) as a so-called Earth Explorer Mission. TRAQ is devoted to research on air quality and climate change. The most important parties from the Dutch space sector are involved in the preparations for TROPOMI: SRON, Dutch Space, TNO, KNMI and the Netherlands Agency for Aerospace Programmes (NIVR). KNMI will provide the principal investigator for the instrument.

Immersed gratings

Especially for the sensors of TROPOMI, SRON, together with TNO, has developed a smart innovative manner to unravel the short-wave infrared radiation in detail whilst still ensuring the compact size of the instrument. The institutes recently made a joint investment to refine the production process of the 'in silicon immersed gratings’ needed for this. Avri Selig, head Earth-Oriented Science at SRON: ‘The prototype of the TROPOMI infrared module is currently being built with TNO and MECON, under the leadership of SRON. I expect a lot from this development aimed at continuing and strongly improving the measurements of carbon monoxide and methane.’

For the time being Annemieke Gloudemans is delighted with the data from SCIAMACHY. ‘A wealth of information. In the near future, we will gain a lot of new important insights into the emission and spread of carbon monoxide and methane in particular’. Even on holiday, the enthusiastic researcher is busy with her subject. ‘When I took a helicopter trip in New Zealand recently, I saw with my own eyes that smoke particles from the yearly Australian wildfires form annual rings as it were in the permanent snow on the mountain tops.’

The Envisat conference was held from 23 to 27 April in the Swiss town of Montreux to mark the fifth anniversary of Envisat being operational in space.

SRON

SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research is an expertise institute of the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). The institute develops and uses innovative instruments for groundbreaking research from space.

Jasper Wamsteker | alfa
Further information:
http://www.sron.nl/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1390&Itemid=588

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Preservation of floodplains is flood protection
27.09.2017 | Technische Universität München

nachricht Conservationists are sounding the alarm: parrots much more threatened than assumed
15.09.2017 | Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Osaka university researchers make the slipperiest surfaces adhesive

18.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

Space radiation won't stop NASA's human exploration

18.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Los Alamos researchers and supercomputers help interpret the latest LIGO findings

18.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>