This marks the start of a long-term European commitment to monitor the recovery of the ozone layer and to support the monitoring and forecasting of air quality, both for European citizens and at a global level. The products have been developed by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in partnership with EUMETSAT’s Satellite Application Facility on Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring (O3M SAF), which is coordinated by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The O3M SAF generates, validates, archives and distributes atmospheric ozone, trace gases, aerosols and surface-ultraviolet radiation data products using measurements from MetOp-A.
GOME-2, a scanning spectrometer, follows on from successful GOME flown on ESA’s ERS-2 satellite launched in April 1995, and provides near-global coverage on a daily basis. The instrument measures profiles of atmospheric ozone and the distribution of other trace gases in the atmosphere. The instrument measures profiles of atmospheric ozone and the distribution of other trace gases in the atmosphere that are related to the depletion of ozone in the stratosphere, and to natural and anthropogenic sources of pollution.
The amount of surface ultraviolet radiation is also derived from GOME-2 measurements. The ozone layer at an altitude of 20-30 kilometres shields the Earth from harmful ultra-violet radiation. However, the depletion of this protective ozone layer, which is most noticeable over the Arctic and Antarctic regions, is of particular environmental concern. The resulting increased levels of ultraviolet radiation reaching the surface of the Earth can cause serious damage to human health, agriculture, forests and water ecosystems. High levels of atmospheric pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide produced by fossil fuel combustion, can damage respiratory health and contribute to acid deposition which harms soil and vegetation.
The first image above shows total ozone in the atmosphere as measured by the GOME-2 instrument on 11 January 2007 during one day of successive orbits of MetOp-A. This picture illustrates the large variability within the ozone layer, with ozone-rich air at the northern mid-latitudes and smaller levels of ozone over the (sub)-tropical region. GOME-2 monitors the ozone layer amount from day to day on a global basis, and will track the evolution of the ozone-hole above Antarctica during austral spring.
Regional Nitrogen dioxide
The image shows total nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere over Europe on 4 February 2007, as measured by the GOME-2 instrument on MetOp-A. Nitrogen dioxide is one of the most important contributors to air pollution. With the GOME-2 instrument, nitrogen dioxide can be measured worldwide on a daily basis, and at a city-size scale. Clearly visible in this picture are high tropospheric nitrogen dioxide concentrations over large urban and industrial areas of Europe. Note that the pollution patterns seen on a daily basis are also affected by the prevailing weather conditions and the resulting movement of clean and polluted air.
Mariangela D'Acunto | alfa
Scientists team up on study to save endangered African penguins
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13.11.2017 | Technische Universität München
The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.
Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....
The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...
Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.
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Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.
During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....
The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.
Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...
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15.11.2017 | Event News
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22.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
22.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy