Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Nitrogen rain makes bogs contribute to climate change

07.12.2006
High levels of nitrogenous compounds can make bogs give off more carbon dioxide, thereby adding to the greenhouse effect. This has been shown by the plant ecologist Håkan Rydin in an article published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, PNAS.

The increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the air are leading us to expect climate change with higher temperatures in the future. The principal cause is the combustion of fossil fuels, but there are other processes that can lead to increases in carbon dioxide as well. For thousands of years, plants in peat bogs and other fens have absorbed carbon dioxide from the air for their photosynthesis, binding it in the form of layers of peat that can reach depths of 10 meters. Such binding of carbon dioxide serves as a carbon trap and can counteract the release of carbon dioxide to some extent.

“Now there are signs that indicate that nitrogenous compounds in the air make peat bogs start to give off more carbon dioxide than they bind, and that they may tip over from being a carbon trap to being a carbon source, thereby aggravating the greenhouse effect instead,” says Håkan Rydin, professor of plant ecology, who directed the study.

The amount of carbon contained in peat layers is equivalent to 40-50 percent of the total amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The most important peat-forming plants are bog mosses (NOT the same as the reindeer lichens used in advent candle settings). Bog mosses have several unique properties. They soak up water like sponges, making the environment waterlogged and low on oxygen, which counteracts their being degraded by microorganisms and leads to the accumulation of plant remains in the form of peat. Another reason peat is formed is that bog mosses produce organic substances, such as polyphenols, that make them difficult to break down. They are therefore highly deficient in nutrition and are directly impacted by the amounts of nitrogen found in precipitation as a result of air pollution.

In the present study, a network of scientists show, from samples taken from bogs in Europe with varying levels of nitrogen in the precipitation, that bog mosses growing in areas with higher levels of nitrogen form smaller amounts of polyphenols and are therefore more susceptible to degradation by microorganisms than those growing in areas with low levels of nitrogen, such as the Nordic countries. This increased degradation entails that bogs give off more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.

They have also found that precipitation with high levels of nitrogen promotes the growth of grass and sedge, which also occur on bogs. These plants do not add to peat build-up in the same way as bog mosses. All in all, this means that bogs can aggravate the greenhouse effect in areas with high levels of nitrogen in precipitation, by both giving off more and binding less carbon dioxide.

Anneli Waara | alfa
Further information:
http://www.uu.se
http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/0606629104v1

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Scientists team up on study to save endangered African penguins
16.11.2017 | Florida Atlantic University

nachricht Climate change: Urban trees are growing faster worldwide
13.11.2017 | Technische Universität München

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Nanoparticles help with malaria diagnosis – new rapid test in development

The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.

Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

Im Focus: Researchers Develop Data Bus for Quantum Computer

The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.

Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Previous evidence of water on mars now identified as grainflows

21.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

NASA's James Webb Space Telescope completes final cryogenic testing

21.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

New catalyst controls activation of a carbon-hydrogen bond

21.11.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>