Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

NASA satellites can see how climate change affects forests

31.08.2006
A NASA-funded study shows that satellites can track the growth and health of forests and detect the impact of a changing climate on them.

Although predicting how future climate change will affect forests remains uncertain, new tools, including satellite data, are giving scientists the information they need to better understand the various factors at play and how they may change forest composition and health.

Scientists have found that satellite measurements of tree species and growth in forested regions across the United States were often equivalent to those taken directly on the ground. The study relied on a sophisticated data product from NASA's MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites called the "enhanced vegetation index," a measure of forest productivity that can also be used to gauge the total number of tree species in a region. The data was found to be highly successful in indicating the number of tree species when compared against data compiled, for the first time, in a country-wide survey of tree species by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

The MODIS data also shows that the overall productivity or growth of a forest in response to weather and seasonal conditions was closely linked to the number of different tree species it contains, allowing scientists to more readily infer the effects of climate change. "In anticipation of shifts in climate, accurate measurements of forest growth and composition are becoming more important," said Richard Waring, professor emeritus of forest science at Oregon State University, Corvallis, Ore., and lead author of the study. "These new data help us better predict how forests may change so officials can implement environmental plans or regulations to lessen the impact in advance."

Woody Turner, Program Scientist at NASA Headquarters, Washington, said "this research confirms that MODIS can provide detailed, accurate information on forests over vast regions in a simple, straightforward manner, essential for forest managers in a period of changing climate."

In the past, scientists predicted the productivity of forests from computer models using climate data. Gross primary productivity is a measure of plant photosynthesis and the ability of forests to "inhale" carbon dioxide. Net productivity is the amount of energy left for plant growth following the conversion of carbon dioxide into new plant tissue.

"Such methods relied heavily on costly ground measurements and on mathematical computer models that require extensive soil and climate data, which is often imprecise," said Waring. "The data from MODIS used here may also be helpful in sorting out changes in forest health caused by land conversion or pollution rather than climate change."

The MODIS data was highly accurate in confirming the number of tree species in many regions across the United States, but it predicted more than the number currently present in the Pacific Northwest. This finding is not unexpected given the region's climate history.

A look at the area's evolutionary past suggests that about two to three million years ago, during a period known at the late Pliocene, the region rather suddenly turned cooler and drier, leading to a major die-off of many species, many of which still have not recovered. "Overall, the Pacific Northwest now supports about 60 tree species, but if not for the abrupt climate shift millions of years ago, it is likely the region's current climate would support twice that number," Waring said.

Although forests appear to be adapting to changes in today's climate, prehistoric records indicate that climate change tends to destroy established vegetation patterns and causes new ones to be formed. "It is unclear how forests will respond in the future, when climate change is likely to accelerate," said Waring.

But researchers are fairly certain there will be both winners and losers among tree species. New patterns of tree growth will emerge, some species may die but others may simply migrate and thrive.

Such shifts in the forest landscape may in turn cause more climate changes. For instance, additional warming could result if tree species like evergreen conifers move into areas that were previously treeless or snow-covered since evergreens would reflect less of the sun's energy, causing temperatures near the surface to increase.

Under another possible scenario, climate change might allow a greater number of tree species to grow in some forests, providing a natural defense against insect and disease attacks. But some of the new species could be "invasive" and threaten the overall health of the forests. Unexpected fire, insect and disease outbreaks can also further disturb forests, making them more vulnerable to invasive species. NASA's research tools like MODIS are giving scientists the detailed information they need to better understand such possibilities, vital for improving predictions and preparedness.

Rob Gutro | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.nasa.gov

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Scientists team up on study to save endangered African penguins
16.11.2017 | Florida Atlantic University

nachricht Climate change: Urban trees are growing faster worldwide
13.11.2017 | Technische Universität München

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Nanoparticles help with malaria diagnosis – new rapid test in development

The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.

Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

Im Focus: Researchers Develop Data Bus for Quantum Computer

The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.

Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Previous evidence of water on mars now identified as grainflows

21.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

NASA's James Webb Space Telescope completes final cryogenic testing

21.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

New catalyst controls activation of a carbon-hydrogen bond

21.11.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>