These facts are dramatically demonstrated by the latest images from two sensors, the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) on ESA’s ENVISAT satellite and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA’s Aura Satellite. The AATSR data show clearly how temperatures in the UK rose rapidly in a few days whilst the OMI results show the large increases in NO2. In particular, the results show the extremity of the effects on large conurbations, such as London, Birmingham, Manchester and Liverpool, suffering both extremes of temperature and pollution, whilst smaller individual cities such as Leicester show high temperatures but more moderate levels of pollution. Rural environments outside the sphere of influence of the cities display much more pleasant temperatures and moderate pollution levels. Since NO2 is mainly caused by road traffic and power-plants, the lack of rain and wind in the stable summer weather allows significant NO2 build-up in major cities.
Dr. John Remedios, Head of Earth Observation Science at the University of Leicester said: “The latest satellite data shows a perspective on the environment in which we live that can only be obtained from space. The images show the temperature increase and increased pollution for every region in the UK. It is particularly striking to see the extent of temperature and pollution increases in the large cities which have such a detrimental effect on the quality of life in those locations”.
These extremes of temperature and of pollution are likely to occur periodically throughout the summer as the prevailing heatwave conditions maintain themselves. Moreover, current climate change predictions for the UK suggest that the frequency of these extreme periods of high temperature and high pollution will increase. The consequences of long-term exposure to prolonged high temperatures and pollution levels are of particular concern to the elderly and those with breathing difficulties, living in large cities with associated health risks. Hence these data should be closely scrutinised by local and national government when considering air quality measures available each day in their respective areas. EU and National frameworks are in place, which impose maximum limits on levels of nitrogen dioxide in populated areas. Techniques and technology are progressing rapidly to allow more accurate and timelier assessment of compliance with such regulations across national and international landscapes.
The AATSR instrument is a UK instrument, funded by the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, to monitor sea and land surface temperatures.
The OMI instrument is a Dutch-Finnish instrument, funded by the Dutch and Finnish government. OMI was launched in July 2004 on NASA's EOS-Aura satellite. The Principal Investigator Institute is the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute KNMI, which works closely with NASA GSFC and FMI. Dr. Pieternel Levelt, OMI's Principal Investigator, said: "OMI's global urban-scale air pollution measurements on a day-to-day basis are the best ever to date for air quality from space."
Alex Jelley | alfa
Dispersal of Fish Eggs by Water Birds – Just a Myth?
19.02.2018 | Universität Basel
Removing fossil fuel subsidies will not reduce CO2 emissions as much as hoped
08.02.2018 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
At the Hannover Messe 2018, the Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und-prüfung (BAM) will show how, in the future, astronauts could produce their own tools or spare parts in zero gravity using 3D printing. This will reduce, weight and transport costs for space missions. Visitors can experience the innovative additive manufacturing process live at the fair.
Powder-based additive manufacturing in zero gravity is the name of the project in which a component is produced by applying metallic powder layers and then...
Physicists at the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics, which is jointly run by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, have developed a high-power laser system that generates ultrashort pulses of light covering a large share of the mid-infrared spectrum. The researchers envisage a wide range of applications for the technology – in the early diagnosis of cancer, for instance.
Molecules are the building blocks of life. Like all other organisms, we are made of them. They control our biorhythm, and they can also reflect our state of...
University of Connecticut researchers have created a biodegradable composite made of silk fibers that can be used to repair broken load-bearing bones without the complications sometimes presented by other materials.
Repairing major load-bearing bones such as those in the leg can be a long and uncomfortable process.
Study published in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces is the outcome of an international effort that included teams from Dresden and Berlin in Germany, and the US.
Scientists at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) together with colleagues from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) and the University of Virginia...
Novel highly efficient and brilliant gamma-ray source: Based on model calculations, physicists of the Max PIanck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg propose a novel method for an efficient high-brilliance gamma-ray source. A giant collimated gamma-ray pulse is generated from the interaction of a dense ultra-relativistic electron beam with a thin solid conductor. Energetic gamma-rays are copiously produced as the electron beam splits into filaments while propagating across the conductor. The resulting gamma-ray energy and flux enable novel experiments in nuclear and fundamental physics.
The typical wavelength of light interacting with an object of the microcosm scales with the size of this object. For atoms, this ranges from visible light to...
13.04.2018 | Event News
12.04.2018 | Event News
09.04.2018 | Event News
24.04.2018 | Life Sciences
24.04.2018 | Materials Sciences
24.04.2018 | Trade Fair News