Long-distance dispersal (LDD) of wind-borne organisms is central to quantifying risk for transgenic escape and gene flow, control of pests and invasions, persistence in fragmented landscapes and species co-existence; yet LDD remains notoriously difficult to define, measure and model. This difficulty has shaped the current paradigm that the frequency and spatial extent of LDD events are almost impossible to predict.
In the September issue of The American Naturalist, G. G. Katul (Duke University) and colleagues introduce a mechanistic analytical model for estimating dispersal kernels of seeds and their escape probability from the canopy, using simplifications to well-established turbulent transport theories. The model parameters--wind statistics, seed release height, and seed terminal velocity--are clearly interpretable and can easily be measured independently of dispersal data, as compared to the synthetic parameters of equivalent phenomenological analytical models that necessitate dispersal data for calibration.
A necessary condition for LDD, seed uplifting and escape from the canopy, along with other key attributes of the dispersal kernel, were reproduced well by the model. To meet the increasing demand for proper evaluation of ecological risk reduction by employing less subjective and more transparent methods, mathematical models should make their assumptions explicit and should realistically incorporate the key biological and physical processes underlying environmental changes.
Successful calculation of human and natural influence on cloud formation
04.11.2016 | Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main
Invasive Insects Cost the World Billions Per Year
04.10.2016 | University of Adelaide
In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
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07.12.2016 | Health and Medicine
07.12.2016 | Life Sciences
07.12.2016 | Health and Medicine