Give a marine snail an easy life, and it will take its time drilling into a clam. Put it under competitive stress, and it will look for a faster route. Those changes, scarred into fossils, show that an unknown catastrophe nearly two million years ago changed the competitive balance in the Western Atlantic and the ecosystem has yet to fully recover, according to research published this week in the journal Science.
In the seagrass meadows of the Gulf of Mexico, Chicoreus and Phyllonotus marine snails feed on Chione clams by slowly drilling a hole through the shell wall. That process can take a week, while the snails risk losing their prey to another snail or being attacked themselves by fish, crabs or other predators.
High levels of competition should favor faster feeding, said Geerat Vermeij, professor of geology at UC Davis and an author on the paper. The snails can get a quicker meal by drilling through the thinnest part at the shells edge -- but risk getting their feeding proboscis nipped off by the closing shell.
Andy Fell | EurekAlert!
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Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.
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Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
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