More than one-third of the greenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere stem from agriculture and forestry. One of the current concerns is to find ways of managing agriculture differently in order to increase the level of carbon storage in soils and limit emission of gases that contribute to global atmospheric warming.
Photosynthesis ensures that plants assimilate carbon dioxide, in the form of plant carbon, part of which (in roots and crop residues) is returned to the soil and stored in a stable form in organic matter. The quantities of carbon stored in the soil depend as much on crop practices as on the soil characteristics. However, some agricultural practices (such as fertilizing and irrigation) favour emission of other greenhouse gases, such as methane and nitrous oxide. Alternative plantation management methods often recommended include the omission of ploughing and cultivation under plant cover. IRD researchers are working on quantitative field assessment of different management alternatives for agriculture and forestry in tropical areas. In Brazil, they have been working with local partners (1) and have brought to evidence the advantages of changing over from traditional methods of sugarcane harvesting involving burning to practices that omit burning.
In Brazil, sugarcane plantations occupy nearly 5 million hectares and produce 10 to 15 tonnes (dry weight) of leaves per hectare per year. Traditional harvesting is a manual method and is carried out after burning of the uncut cane. Burning of the leaves immediately changes the plant carbon into carbon dioxide and methane, which add to existing atmospheric concentrations. It also leads to emissions of nitrous oxide, which comes from part of the plant nitrogen. Methane and nitrous oxide have high potential for contributing to global warming, respectively 20 and 300 times higher than that of carbon dioxide. Moreover, plantation burning liberates potentially toxic, polluting carbon-rich ash and, owing to the elimination of leaf litter, favours soil erosion. An alternative to this system is the non-burning method, but this practice demands mechanization of harvesting (2). In this case, the leaves are left lying as a mulch on the ground. Decomposition releases most of their components (80 to 90%) as carbon dioxide into the atmosphere during the year that follows. The remainder (10 to 20%) can accumulate as litter or become incorporated in the first few centimetres of soil, in this way increasing the amount of carbon stored.
Marie Guillaume | alfa
Preservation of floodplains is flood protection
27.09.2017 | Technische Universität München
Conservationists are sounding the alarm: parrots much more threatened than assumed
15.09.2017 | Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen
University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event
On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...
Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.
Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....
Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).
When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...
Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.
How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...
Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.
It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...
17.10.2017 | Event News
10.10.2017 | Event News
10.10.2017 | Event News
20.10.2017 | Information Technology
20.10.2017 | Materials Sciences
20.10.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research