Long-term exposure to a synthetic estrogen at levels below those currently found in the environment may have a major impact on fish populations, according to a study accepted today for publication in the December issue of the peer-reviewed journal Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP). The study shows that ethynylestradiol, a potent form of estrogen used in oral contraceptives, can produce sexually compromised males.
Researchers exposed zebrafish to low concentrations of the hormone over three generations and measured the effects. After 210 days, or a full zebrafish lifetime of exposure to ethynylestradiol, second-generation fish showed reduced fertility. In addition, out of nearly 12,000 eggs spawned, none were viable. Upon examination, researchers found that none of the second-generation male fish had normal testes, and they did not produce expressible semen. However, the fish showed normal reproductive behavior patterns, including competing with healthy males.
This research suggests that the development of the testes is more sensitive to disruption by ethynylestradiol than is reproductive behavior. This could have significant population-level consequences, as infertile males have a significant ability to interfere with breeding dynamics. “Previous studies in fish have shown that endocrine disruptors can reduce sperm counts and induce female-specific proteins in males,” said Dr. Jim Burkhart, science editor for EHP. “But until now little evidence existed to show that environmentally relevant concentrations of endocrine disruptors could induce such changes and actually reduce fertility.”
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Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.
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