Soils provide humans with a whole range of irreplaceable ecosystem services the production and maintenance of which are largely dependent on the actions of the animal communities which inhabit them. Apart from the substantial agricultural production made necessary by humanity’s demand for food, soils filter and store water, holding back erosion and flooding. They provide a large proportion of the nutrients necessary for plant growth and for maintaining biodiversity, and at the same time limit greenhouse-gas emissions by storing organic matter. They are a rich harbour of biodiversity. But their associated processes are barely understood.
Soil quality is often overlooked in farming practice. Yet it is one of the key factors for rendering ecosystem services. Soils become depleted by intensive cultivation, erosion, deforestation or pollution. Subsurface fauna communities, which play a prime role in the preservation and maintenance of this quality, are often largely eliminated by farming procedures in which they are not taken into account. Burrowing animals create soil structure which limits the impact of erosion and provides zones underground where water can accumulate. This underground activity also offers prospects for atmospheric detoxification by means of carbon sequestration, and control of methane production or of oxidising agents such as nitric oxide. Earthworms, termites and ants –known indeed as soil or ecosystem engineers- regulate the activity of smaller organisms, thereby controlling the various stages of soil biogeochemical cycles. They stimulate the auxiliary micro-organisms of plants while limiting the impact of parasites, for example extremely harmful soil nematodes. The presence and diversity of these animals is naturally an indicator of the “good health” of the land they inhabit.
Research on these aspects is vital at a time when the preoccupation of those in soil management is no longer solely straightforward agricultural production. These practitioners are concerned about farming’s negative effects on other ecosystem services this medium performs. The pieces of research presented will draw a picture of the range of influences the fauna exerts and set out for soil managers alternative methods and indices potentially useful for evaluation and adjustment of soil management practices and policies.
How does the loss of species alter ecosystems?
18.05.2017 | Deutsches Zentrum für integrative Biodiversitätsforschung (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig
Excess diesel emissions bring global health & environmental impacts
16.05.2017 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that colonizes by far more than half of the skin and the mucosa of adults, usually without causing infections....
Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.
The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....
An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.
We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...
Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.
Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...
An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...
24.05.2017 | Event News
23.05.2017 | Event News
22.05.2017 | Event News
26.05.2017 | Life Sciences
26.05.2017 | Life Sciences
26.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy