100,000 tons of sludge is produced annually in the Basque Autonomous Community (BAC) at waste water treatment plants (E.D.A.R). Under new legislation it will be obligatory to install these sewage water treatment plants in those urban areas of more than 3000 inhabitants, which in turn will mean, in the medium term, a considerable increase in the amount of sewage sludge generated.
The application of this sludge to forestry systems is being put forward as a solution to the ever-increasing production of this by-product of urban populations. The effects on crops and our natural resources that the application of this E.D.A.R. sludge might have should be thoroughly studied in order to preserve the environment and manage an organic residue such as this in a sustainable way. Thus, applications of treated sludge should avoid:
The transformation of waste sludge in soils is influenced by the properties of these, given the ongoing physical, chemical and biochemical processes therein. All these reactions affect the end-products of the breakdown in the soil and speed of such breakdown. Various studies of sewage sludge applications have shown that they affect the potential leaching of NO3 and a greater loss through NO3 leaching is experienced in those areas subjected to successive applications of the sludge than in those places untreated with sewage sludge. Nevertheless, more information is needed about the effect of such successive applications of sewage sludge regarding exactly where the nitrogen ends up in forest soils. This information is necessary in order to avoid NO3 leaching from taking place.
No study of the this use of sewage sludge on forest soils in the BAC has taken place to date, given the difficulty of the application of such material (the extensive land surfaces to be treated, the large quantities of sludge to be transported, a terrain difficult to work with machinery). One of the aims of this research was to study the NO3- y NH4+ ions in lixiviations after repeated applications of EDAR sludge on forest soil planted with Pinus radiata.
Garazi Andonegi | Basque research
Invasive Insects Cost the World Billions Per Year
04.10.2016 | University of Adelaide
Malaysia's unique freshwater mussels in danger
27.09.2016 | The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.
"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...
In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.
A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...
By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.
"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...
COMPAMED has become the leading international marketplace for suppliers of medical manufacturing. The trade fair, which takes place every November and is co-located to MEDICA in Dusseldorf, has been steadily growing over the past years and shows that medical technology remains a rapidly growing market.
In 2016, the joint pavilion by the IVAM Microtechnology Network, the Product Market “High-tech for Medical Devices”, will be located in Hall 8a again and will...
'Ferroelectric' materials can switch between different states of electrical polarization in response to an external electric field. This flexibility means they show promise for many applications, for example in electronic devices and computer memory. Current ferroelectric materials are highly valued for their thermal and chemical stability and rapid electro-mechanical responses, but creating a material that is scalable down to the tiny sizes needed for technologies like silicon-based semiconductors (Si-based CMOS) has proven challenging.
Now, Hiroshi Funakubo and co-workers at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, in collaboration with researchers across Japan, have conducted experiments to...
14.10.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
12.10.2016 | Event News
21.10.2016 | Health and Medicine
21.10.2016 | Information Technology
21.10.2016 | Materials Sciences