Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Carbon Trading, Climate Change, and the Kyoto Protocol

18.10.2002


New Report Discovers Carbon Trading to Be Win-Win Proposition for Poor Villagers, Big Business, and for Slowing Climate Change



As the next major meeting on global climate change opens in New Delhi next week, a potentially controversial report concludes that deals to counteract the carbon emissions of the smokestack industry could benefit more than the environment. It reveals that carbon-trading deals in forestry could sharply reduce poverty among the rural poor, while also providing businesses with an inexpensive way to "off-set" their carbon emissions. The research counters the view that most carbon-trading deals between industry and tree growers in developing countries will have negative environmental and social consequences.

Carbon trading allows industries in developed countries to off-set their emissions of carbon dioxide by investing in reforestation and clean energy projects in developing countries.


The report’s authors are seeking major changes to the carbon-trading rules to be debated in next week’s Eighth Session of the Conference of the Parties to the Climate Change Convention under the Kyoto Protocol. In particular, the report suggests these changes will ensure that poor countries become "real players" in the climate change negotiations.

This is the first report to examine whether community tree planting projects are viable contenders for the emerging market in carbon trading. Released by two of the world’s leading forestry organizations, the research pools evidence from more than 20 studies of actual forest carbon projects on the ground. The report was authored by researchers at the Bogor, Indonesia-based Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), a Future Harvest Center of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, and Washington, D.C.-based Forest Trends. Financial support for this work was provided by the UK’s Department for International Development (DFID), the Rockefeller Foundation, Germany’s Centre for Technical Cooperation (GTZ), and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).

The report argues that carbon projects could potentially recover habitat on millions of hectares of heavily populated forest and farmlands. "This would bring social, economic, and local environmental benefits to hundreds of thousands, and potentially millions, of poor rural people in the developing world," said David Kaimowitz, Director General of CIFOR.

"Our report shows for the first time that deals between industry and community tree growers may be one of the least expensive ways for companies to off-set their carbon emissions," said Sara Scherr, Senior Policy Analyst at the Washington, D.C.-based Forest Trends and co-author of the report. "If companies invested in such deals, this could mean a huge number of private sector dollars being invested in poor rural areas."

For example, in the Handia Forest range of Madhya Pradesh, India, 95 very poor rural villages would jointly earn at least US$300,000 every year from carbon payments by restoring 10,000 hectares (24,700 acres) of degraded community forests, if their project succeeds. "Healthy forests bring all kinds of other benefits too," said Scherr. "In this situation, they would help to protect endangered leopards and monkeys and improve local water supplies. At the same time, villagers—many of whom own no cropland—would earn money from the sale of fuel wood, high-value timber, and tendu leaves used for wrapping cigars."

"Community tree planting efforts have always been thought of as too costly and risky for businesses," said Joyotee Smith, co-author of the report. "However, our report shows that many community-based projects can sell carbon credits at the expected global market price of US$15 to $20 per ton of sequestered carbon."

Forests can reduce greenhouse gases in the atmosphere by sequestering carbon, but many fear carbon-trading deals will spawn vast tree plantations with monocultures of non-native tree species on lands already claimed by local people. Forest Carbon and Local Livelihoods: Assessment and Policy Recommendations contends that community tree-planting projects can offer investors the same carbon benefits as industrial tree plantations and at lower risk. Many industries will prefer to buy "socially responsible" carbon credits, as long as the cost is competitive.

"All these opportunities will be lost unless villager-owned tree growing efforts are explicitly supported in the international carbon-trading rules," said Scherr.

Industrial countries can only use deals in lower-income countries to offset a limited portion of their carbon obligations. This still represents a potential private financial flow of US$300 million per year to some of the world’s poorest people, however. According to the researchers, this share of investment could more than match current annual flows of official overseas aid for forestry development in poor communities.

The potential environmental benefits of the deals discussed in the report are enormous. According to the researchers, there are 126 million hectares (311 million acres) of low-yielding crop and pastureland. Converting some of these areas to higher-yielding agroforestry would sequester five to 50 tons of carbon per hectare per year. Rehabilitating dry forests in India could double sequestration from 27 to 55 tons of carbon yearly for every hectare of dry forest improved. Using carbon finance to reforest critical wildlife habitat, The Nature Conservancy’s project in the unique Atlantic Forest of Brazil, could sequester 60 tons of carbon yearly for every hectare of land converted. In the process, this particular effort will secure water supplies and generate local income from ecotourism as well.

"Problems with forest carbon arise when trees are being grown solely for their carbon," said Scherr. If there are other economic uses of the reforested land, such as producing fuel wood, rubber, fruits, and food crops, then the cost of carbon sequestration is lower. "Communities can use carbon payments to finance sustainable tree-growing investments that produce these non-carbon benefits," added Scherr.

Kyoto Protocol Clean Development Mechanism Rule Changes Needed

The authors warn that community-friendly forest carbon projects are unlikely to take root without proactive changes in the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism rules, and in the approaches that developing countries and project designers are taking. The report seeks action in four main areas.

  • Make all types of forestry and agroforestry projects with significant benefits for local communities eligible for the Clean Development Mechanism (as long as they also meet rigorous requirements for carbon benefits). For example, draft rules omit forest rehabilitation as an approved activity despite its enormous social benefits and significant carbon-sequestration potential.
  • Reduce risks for local communities. The rules should require assessments of the social impact of projects to ascertain how local people have benefited or been harmed. National governments will need to protect and formalize land tenure rights of communities, or carbon deals will be riddled with conflict, increasing their financial risk for investors.
  • Reduce the cost of managing community projects. Private businesses and NGOs can act as intermediaries to combine the carbon offsets produced by multiple farmers or communities and sell them jointly to buyers. For example, in Mexico, a local environmental organization helped to organize 400 small-scale farmers in 20 communities to sequester carbon by planting trees around their crop fields. With the NGO acting as the intermediary, the farmers sold carbon credits equal to 17,000 tons of carbon to the International Federation of Automobiles for between US$10 and $12 per ton of carbon. The CDM rules should make all community-based forestry projects eligible for the low-cost "fast-track" approval process.
  • Reduce risks and costs for investors. The report notes that there are new players in the carbon-trading field who can simplify deal making and reduce the costs of organizing and marketing community tree-growing projects. For example, industry buyers are now able to purchase carbon offsets from investors who have portfolios of projects, which spreads risk. The independent, non-profit Face Foundation has developed a portfolio of five projects in five countries, affecting 135,000 hectares (333,450 acres) that sequester 21 million tons of carbon.

The Eighth Session of the Conference of the Parties (COP8) to the Climate Change Convention takes place from 23 October through 1 November in New Delhi. The Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Treaty on Climate Changes legally commits countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by an average of 5.2 percent relative to 1990 levels. It is expected to be ratified soon. The most recent countries to commit to the treaty are Japan and Russia. They announced their support at the United Nations World Summit on Sustainable Development.

Ellen Wilson | EurekAlert!

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Scientists team up on study to save endangered African penguins
16.11.2017 | Florida Atlantic University

nachricht Climate change: Urban trees are growing faster worldwide
13.11.2017 | Technische Universität München

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Nanoparticles help with malaria diagnosis – new rapid test in development

The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.

Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

Im Focus: Researchers Develop Data Bus for Quantum Computer

The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.

Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

From Hannover around the world and to the Mars: LZH delivers laser for ExoMars 2020

21.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Borophene shines alone as 2-D plasmonic material

21.11.2017 | Materials Sciences

Penn study identifies new malaria parasites in wild bonobos

21.11.2017 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>