Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Ecology and conservation of fragmented tropical forests

01.08.2002


Panama City, Panama-Today the world’s tropical forests are not only being cleared at an extraordinary rate, they are also increasingly being divided into fragments that can rapidly lose their original rich biodiversity. At the 2002 meetings of the Association for Tropical Biology, hosted by the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI), Panama, this conservation crisis was addressed in a symposium bringing together concerned investigators from throughout the tropics.



Organized by William Laurance of STRI and Pierre-Michel Forget of the Museum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, the session included 24 presentations that examined the causes, scope, and consequences of fragmentation in studies from 12 countries on five continents. The range of organisms included was equally broad, extending from mosses to forest trees, and from dung beetles to lemurs. The following are a sampling of the results reported at the meeting.

Tom Lovejoy, of H. John Heinz Center for Science, who initiated the first large scale experimental studies of tropical forest fragmentation in the Brazilian Amazon, the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments (BDFF) Project, presented an overview of what has been learned so far and suggested directions for the future. He pointed out that although species declines small fragments may be rapid, larger fragments of 100 hectares or more retain their diversity much longer, enabling us to take steps towards restoration before losses become irreversible.


William Laurance described the rapid changes in forest composition that take place in small forest fragments, based on data collected by the BDFF over the past 22 years. These changes are driven by greatly accelerated tree mortality near forest edges, causing species typical of old growth to decline and disturbance-tolerant species to increase. As a result, the composition of different fragments becomes more similar over time, causing a loss of tree diversity in the fragments taken as a whole even though the diversity decline in individual fragments is limited.

In contrast, data from a naturally fragmented forest in India showed that fragments serve as reservoirs for tree genetic diversity. Rajani Kanth of the University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, presented work with collaborators B. Tambat, G. Ravikanth, U. Shankaar, and K.N. Ganeshaiah, demonstrating that although individual small fragments of shola forest in the Western Ghat mountains are low in genetic diversity, collectively they contain more diversity than large fragments, emphasizing the value of small fragments for conservation.

Jean Paul Metzger of the Universidade São Paolo, Brazil, reported on studies of the effects of fragment size and connectivity on species survival, community richness, and regeneration processes in the Atlantic forest of Brazil. Detailed surveys of trees, vertebrates, and butterflies showed fragmentation affected species richness and diversity for all study groups, and also affected important ecological processes, but some of these effects were unexpected. For example, tree communities in small isolated fragments turned out to be richer in than those in larger connected ones.

Surrounding land use can have important effects on species persistence in fragmented landscapes. Luis Miguel Renjifo of the Insituto Alexander von Humboldt, Colombia, compared the relative abundances of 113 species of birds in forest fragments surrounded by either pastures or exotic tree plantations, to those in plots surrounded by continuous forest. More than 65% of the species showed significant differences in abundance depending on the surrounding type of land use. Some species persisted better in patches surrounded by plantations than in those surrounded by pasture, suggesting that such a land use could be used as a management tool as a complement to habitat protection and restoration.

Future climate change due to global warming may have catastrophic effects on species restricted to fragmented habitats. Steve Williams of James Cook University, Australia, presented an analysis of the potential effects of climate change on the vertebrate fauna of the wet tropics of Australia, especially the 72 species endemic to the region. While a conservative scenario of a 1E C temperature rise would result in the direct loss of only one endemic, a perhaps more likely rise of 3.5E could cause the loss of 50% of the endemic fauna.

William F. Laurance | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.si.edu/

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Dispersal of Fish Eggs by Water Birds – Just a Myth?
19.02.2018 | Universität Basel

nachricht Removing fossil fuel subsidies will not reduce CO2 emissions as much as hoped
08.02.2018 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Explanation for puzzling quantum oscillations has been found

So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics

Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...

Im Focus: Dozens of binaries from Milky Way's globular clusters could be detectable by LISA

Next-generation gravitational wave detector in space will complement LIGO on Earth

The historic first detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes far outside our galaxy opened a new window to understanding the universe. A...

Im Focus: Entangled atoms shine in unison

A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. This fundamental demonstration could lead to the development of highly sensitive optical gradiometers for the precise measurement of the gravitational field or the earth's magnetic field.

The age of quantum technology has long been heralded. Decades of research into the quantum world have led to the development of methods that make it possible...

Im Focus: Computer-Designed Customized Regenerative Heart Valves

Cardiovascular tissue engineering aims to treat heart disease with prostheses that grow and regenerate. Now, researchers from the University of Zurich, the Technical University Eindhoven and the Charité Berlin have successfully implanted regenerative heart valves, designed with the aid of computer simulations, into sheep for the first time.

Producing living tissue or organs based on human cells is one of the main research fields in regenerative medicine. Tissue engineering, which involves growing...

Im Focus: Light-induced superconductivity under high pressure

A team of scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg investigated optically-induced superconductivity in the alkali-doped fulleride K3C60under high external pressures. This study allowed, on one hand, to uniquely assess the nature of the transient state as a superconducting phase. In addition, it unveiled the possibility to induce superconductivity in K3C60 at temperatures far above the -170 degrees Celsius hypothesized previously, and rather all the way to room temperature. The paper by Cantaluppi et al has been published in Nature Physics.

Unlike ordinary metals, superconductors have the unique capability of transporting electrical currents without any loss. Nowadays, their technological...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Save the date: Forum European Neuroscience – 07-11 July 2018 in Berlin, Germany

02.05.2018 | Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

Unique scope of UV LED technologies and applications presented in Berlin: ICULTA-2018

12.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Supersonic waves may help electronics beat the heat

18.05.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Keeping a Close Eye on Ice Loss

18.05.2018 | Information Technology

CrowdWater: An App for Flood Research

18.05.2018 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>