However, a recent study completed by researchers at Northeastern University in Boston found high concentrations of E. coli bacteria in the Charles River after a long period of no rain.
Ferdi Hellweger, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Acting Director of the Center for Urban Environmental Studies, both at Northeastern, used high-resolution monitoring and modeling to understand the fate and transport of E. coli bacteria in the lower section of the Charles River to determine what factors may lead to the increased concentration.
The results, which were published in the April issue of the Journal of the American Water Resources Association, go above and beyond the current data available about the water quality in the Charles and have the potential to impact the location of future beaches and their management.
Because current monitoring programs do not resolve the small-scale patterns of E. coli, Hellweger and his team carried out a high-resolution monitoring program. Using spatial and temporal surveys at different intervals and locations, Hellweger and his team gathered 757 samples along transects across and along the river, and over time at a fixed location. The results indicated an increased concentration of E. coli after a period of little rainfall.
To make sense of these results, they developed a mathematical model of the river. The model accounts for various drivers, including upstream and downstream flow, wind, combined sewer overflow (CSO) and non-CSO flow from two major tributaries, the Muddy River and the Stony Brook. Based on hydrodynamics and die-off kinetics, the model reproduced the general patterns of E. coli in the water over space and time.
“Our analysis suggests that the Stony Brook and Muddy River are the predominant sources of E. coli in the lower Charles River,” said Hellweger, whose interest in urban hydrology drove this research project. “However, it is important to determine where the bacteria go and their concentration at different times and locations.”
One surprising finding was the effect of the New Charles River Dam, which when open, allows the Charles River to flow downstream and empty into the Boston Harbor. When it is closed, however, the Charles River acts more like a lake or a reservoir, creating a static environment. Thus, in addition to rainfall, the Dam operation cycle does affect the level of bacteria in the Charles River.
“Our study results show that water quality in the Charles River is impacted by several factors, including the New Charles River Dam,” added Hellweger. “While the primary focus of the Dam is to control flooding and navigation, I think that taking water quality issues into account could help reduce public health risk to present boaters and future beachgoers in the Charles,” added Hellweger.
Their model can be used to predict water quality in the lower Charles River, which can be used to evaluate various management scenarios and assess public health risk to swimmers at different times and locations.
In a 2002 study, 25% of surveyed beaches had at least one advisory or area closed, mostly due to unsafe levels of certain forms of bacteria. Exposure to unsafe levels of bacterial can sometimes result in recreational water illnesses (RWI), causing diarrhea, respiratory, skin, ear and eye infections.
Water pollution continues to be a public health threat, and because the Summer is quickly approaching, there will be a heightened interest in protecting people who spend time in the water. “My goal is to help make the Charles River a place where people can swim safely,” said Hellweger.
Founded in 1898, Northeastern University is a private research university located in the heart of Boston. Northeastern is a leader in interdisciplinary research, urban engagement, and the integration of classroom learning with real-world experience. The university’s distinctive cooperative education program, where students alternate semesters of full-time study with semesters of paid work in fields relevant to their professional interests and major, is one of the largest and most innovative in the world. The University offers a comprehensive range of undergraduate and graduate programs leading to degrees through the doctorate in six undergraduate colleges, eight graduate schools, and two part-time divisions.
Fred McGrail | newswise
Scientists produce a new roadmap for guiding development & conservation in the Amazon
09.12.2016 | Wildlife Conservation Society
Successful calculation of human and natural influence on cloud formation
04.11.2016 | Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main
Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. The effect is due to the structure of the materials used. The researchers have now published their work in the journal Science.
Topological insulators are currently the hot topic in physics according to the newspaper Neue Zürcher Zeitung. Only a few weeks ago, their importance was...
In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
09.12.2016 | Life Sciences
09.12.2016 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation
09.12.2016 | Health and Medicine