Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Are North Atlantic Right Whales Mating in the Gulf of Maine?

25.07.2013
Using data obtained during six years of regular aerial surveys and genetics data collected by a consortium of research groups, scientists have strengthened evidence pointing to the central Gulf of Maine as a mating ground for North Atlantic right whales, according to a study recently published online in the journal Endangered Species Research.

The North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) is one of the most endangered marine mammal species in the world and has been intensively studied for decades. Much has been learned about its habitat, behavior, and population demographics. But until now, there was little to indicate where these whales mated, a big missing piece in the puzzle of their life history.

"A high proportion of potential mates aggregated in the central Gulf of Maine between November and January, and these same individuals produced a calf a year later. We concluded that this is a pretty strong indication of a mating ground if the gestation period is 12 months," said Tim Cole, lead author and a biologist at the Woods Hole Laboratory of NOAA’s Northeast Fisheries Science Center (NEFSC).

Through aerial surveys, the researchers documented not only how many but also which right whales were present in the study area during 2002-2008. Individual animals were identified using a photo identification catalog maintained at the New England Aquarium that includes most of the adults in the population. Using genetic data gathered in other field work, known fathers seen in the surveys were identified, as were known mothers, who were identified by association with a calf.

The resulting analyses showed that the animals seen included a higher proportion of reproductively successful animals than were present in other areas that these whales used seasonally. The researchers further assumed a 12-month gestation period for North Atlantic right whales, similar to that estimated for the closely-related southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) by the South African whale biologist Dr. Peter Best.

How definitive is the study? Cole says that while it's a strong indicator, there could well be other mating areas, and its not clear how fixed the areas might be. In fact, since the study ended, fewer right whales have been observed in the area during what would be the mating period. The study also found a similar, if less dramatic, indication that Roseway Basin - an area south of Nova Scotia - may also serve as a mating ground.

"We are still seeing right whales in the central Gulf of Maine, just not in the same numbers. They are still out there, but where they all are is the big question. The decline is significant, so something appears to have changed," Cole said. "The good news is that calf production has been fairly good, with 22 calves born in 2011, 7 in 2012, and 20 this past winter. It will be interesting to see how many calves are born next year."

Most of the North Atlantic right whale population spends the spring and summer on feeding grounds off the northeastern U.S. and the Canadian Maritimes. In late fall and early winter, pregnant females migrate to waters off the southeastern U.S. to give birth. Mothers and calves are detected during intensive aerial surveys conducted from December through March off the coasts of Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina. Mothers and calves return to the northeast feeding grounds in the early spring, and the calves stay with their mothers for a year following birth.

Recovery of this endangered species depends on successful reproduction, but current reproductive rates for North Atlantic right whales are much lower than those for the recovering populations of southern right whales. The reasons for this are unknown, but may include a low level of genetic variability and /or inbreeding, disease, biotoxins, pollutants, food supply limitations, and habitat loss. Increased ocean noise from coastal development could also impact the species by triggering behavioral changes that negatively impact reproduction. Determining the right whale's conception period and mating grounds are important steps in learning about the factors that may be impairing reproduction.

In addition to Cole, study authors included Allison Glass Henry, Peter Duley and Richard Pace from NOAA's Northeast Fisheries Science Center; Philip Hamilton from the New England Aquarium; Bradley White from Trent University in Ontario, Canada; and Tim Frasier from St. Mary’s University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

NOAA Fisheries Service is dedicated to protecting and preserving our nation’s living marine resources and their habitat through scientific research, management and enforcement. NOAA Fisheries Service provides effective stewardship of these resources for the benefit of the nation, supporting coastal communities that depend upon them, and helping to provide safe and healthy seafood to consumers and recreational opportunities for the American public.

NOAA’s mission is to understand and predict changes in the Earth's environment, from the depths of the ocean to the surface of the sun, and to conserve and manage our coastal and marine resources. Join us on Facebook, Twitter and our other social media channels.

Shelley Dawicki | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.noaa.gov
http://www.nefsc.noaa.gov/press_release/2013/SciSpot/SS1308/

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Litter is present throughout the world’s oceans: 1,220 species affected
27.03.2017 | Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung

nachricht International network connects experimental research in European waters
21.03.2017 | Leibniz-Institut für Gewässerökologie und Binnenfischerei (IGB)

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A Challenging European Research Project to Develop New Tiny Microscopes

The Institute of Semiconductor Technology and the Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, both members of the Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology (LENA), at Technische Universität Braunschweig are partners in a new European research project entitled ChipScope, which aims to develop a completely new and extremely small optical microscope capable of observing the interior of living cells in real time. A consortium of 7 partners from 5 countries will tackle this issue with very ambitious objectives during a four-year research program.

To demonstrate the usefulness of this new scientific tool, at the end of the project the developed chip-sized microscope will be used to observe in real-time...

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Periodic ventilation keeps more pollen out than tilted-open windows

29.03.2017 | Health and Medicine

Researchers discover dust plays prominent role in nutrients of mountain forest ecoystems

29.03.2017 | Earth Sciences

OLED production facility from a single source

29.03.2017 | Trade Fair News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>