Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Nature to Provide Eco-friendly Method for Reducing Mosquitoes

22.07.2010
A scientific breakthrough might assist in the fight against mosquitoes. New research carried out at the University of Haifa in collaboration with researchers from other universities has chemically identified, for the first time, compounds released by mosquitoes' natural aquatic predators that function as warning signals for egg laying mosquitoes.

Introducing these natural chemicals into mosquito breeding sites will cause the mosquitoes to sense risk of predation to their progeny and avoid laying their eggs there. These findings will soon be published in the prestigious journal Ecology Letters.

Ecologists and evolutionary biologists have known for a long time that many prey species can detect predators chemically and, upon detection, take various actions to avoid being eaten or avoid having their progeny eaten. Yet, the chemical identity of the predator-released chemicals has remained elusive. Knowing the chemical identity of these compounds would greatly facilitate scientists’ understanding of predator-prey relationships and the importance of these compounds in affecting ecological communities. They may also provide an eco-friendly alternative for mosquito control.

The new breakthrough research, funded by the Israel Science Foundation, was developed in Prof. Leon Blaustein's laboratory at the University of Haifa. Prof. Blaustein’s research partners comprised a multi-disciplinary group: Alon Silberbush, a doctoral student, Dr. Shai Markman, a chemical ecologist from University of Haifa-Oranim, Dr. Efraim Lewinsohn and Einat Bar, chemists at the Newe Yaar Research Center, and Prof. Joel E. Cohen, a mathematical and population biologist at Rockefeller and Columbia Universities.

Previous research from Blaustein’s lab demonstrated that the mosquito, Culiseta longiareolata, chemically detects a voracious predator of its progeny in the water, the backswimmer, Notonecta maculata, and avoids laying eggs where the predator is detected. However, until recently, the chemical identity of these predator-released compounds was not known. By screening and comparing the chemicals released by N. maculata with those released by Anax imperator, another aquatic predator that does not elicit a chemical response by the mosquito, they were able to narrow down the potential chemicals that elicited the mosquito’s behavioral response. Blaustein’s group then conducted outdoor experiments on potential chemicals and determined that two of these N. maculata-released chemicals, n-tricosane and n-heneicosane, repelled these mosquitoes from laying eggs. The two compounds together had an additive effect.

Applying such synthetic compounds to mosquito breeding sites would not only result in much fewer mosquitoes in the immediate area but probably reduce mosquito populations overall. Increased searching by pregnant mosquitoes for a breeding site that is perceived as predator-free increases greatly the probability of dying before egg laying; mosquitoes, on average, incur a 20 percent probability of mortality per day. Moreover, mosquitoes, by concentrating their eggs in considerably fewer breeding sites perceived as predation-risk free, would increase competition among the mosquito larvae resulting in fewer and weaker emerging adults.

Prof. Blaustein explains that in the fight against mosquitoes, there are essentially three lines of defense. The first and preferred line of defense is to prevent emergence of adult mosquitoes from aquatic breeding sites. When this has not been done effectively, mosquito control workers resort to trying to kill the adults that have spread to residential areas. This is much more difficult, more expensive, and usually involves chemical pesticides of environmental and health concerns. When these two lines of defense fail, the burden falls on the public to prevent mosquitoes in search of a blood meal from biting them, such as staying indoors and using mosquito repellents applied to the human skin. Prof. Blaustein points out that options for all three lines of defense are often chemicals that negatively affect the environment and are of health concerns to humans. Moreover, mosquitoes often develop resistance to chemical pesticides so there is always a need to find new weapons against mosquitoes. A bacterial pesticide, Bacillus thuringiensis israeIensis, can be very effective in killing mosquito larvae in breeding habitats while having relatively minor non-target effects, but it is rather expensive and is not effective in highly organic-polluted water.

This research group’s new findings of chemical identification of predator-released egg-laying repellants can be a breakthrough in providing a natural, environmentally friendly and inexpensive option to the arsenal in the first line of defense.

Blaustein adds, “While we see this as a potentially large breakthrough in developing another weapon against mosquitoes, the work, is not over. We hope this breakthrough will spur further research to chemically determine other effective predator-released chemicals, particularly ones that are long lasting and then tested for their efficacy.”

Link: http://newmedia-eng.haifa.ac.il/?p=3427

For more details contact Rachel Feldman • Tel: +972-4-8288722

Rachel Feldman
English Desk
Communications and Media Relations
University of Haifa
Tel: +972-4-8288722
rfeldman@univ.haifa.ac.il

Rachel Feldman | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.haifa.ac.il

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht International network connects experimental research in European waters
21.03.2017 | Leibniz-Institut für Gewässerökologie und Binnenfischerei (IGB)

nachricht World Water Day 2017: It doesn’t Always Have to Be Drinking Water – Using Wastewater as a Resource
17.03.2017 | ISOE - Institut für sozial-ökologische Forschung

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

Im Focus: Researchers Imitate Molecular Crowding in Cells

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Argon is not the 'dope' for metallic hydrogen

24.03.2017 | Materials Sciences

Astronomers find unexpected, dust-obscured star formation in distant galaxy

24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Gravitational wave kicks monster black hole out of galactic core

24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>