Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

From international harbor to native habitat

17.03.2010
Detecting exotic pests before forest and agricultural invasion

In the 1930s, soil used as ballast to weigh down cargo ships from South America to Mobile, Alabama introduced the red imported fire ant to the southern United States. Since then, the ants have been found as far north as Maryland and as far west as California, shorting out streetlights and eating through crops and native plants in the process.

Plant pests like the fire ant cost the U.S. an estimated $37.1 billion per year in agricultural and forest ecosystem losses. And since these pests primarily enter the country through international hubs like Mobile and then spread to nearby ecosystems, the early detection of exotic pests should start at the most vulnerable urban areas.

At least that is the approach Manuel Colunga-Garcia from Michigan State University and colleagues propose in the March issue of Ecological Applications. The researchers suggest that, by establishing specific risk zones and using the information to focus resources, officials can take additional measures to prevent an influx of exotic pests while gaining knowledge about invasions.

"We can learn from cases like the fire ant that the first line of defense against exotic pests is inspections at U.S. ports," says Colunga-Garcia. "But, it doesn't stop there. With the sheer volume of imports that enter the U.S. on a daily basis—only about two percent of the imports are actually inspected—new measures have to be implemented. Our risk-zone analyses, based on recent pest invasions across an urban gradient, can help prioritize surveillance efforts."

The urban gradient framework the researchers describe starts at forests and farms in areas with the densest population and spreads outward to rural areas. The researchers base their framework on two basic assumptions: 1. The threat of introduction is greatest in urban areas receiving large quantities of imported products and their associated wood packaging, like pallets and crating that are known to harbor exotic pests, and 2. Plant ecosystems located closest to these urban areas have the greatest risk of invasion.

To identify the most threatened areas, Colunga-Garcia and colleagues selected 39 invasive plant pests reported by the North American Plant Protection Organization or the Cooperative Agriculture Plant Survey as being of U.S. economic importance. They then compiled a list of all U.S. county occurrences for each selected group of pests through July 2009. They found one or more of the 39 selected pests in 504 counties in 36 out of 48 states; 357 counties harbored just one pest, and 147 counties had two or more. Additionally, the coastal states seemed to be at greatest risk for invasion with at least one pest occurring in each.

"Major coastal urban areas, for instance, should be carefully monitored since they hold a double threat of invasion: a populous area receiving large volumes of potentially infested imports," says Colunga-Garcia. "These characteristics can lead to the rapid spread of plant pests, starting in the urban end of the gradient and moving outward to rural areas as people transport infested materials for development or recreation."

Humans are a driving factor in the spread of exotic plant pests, not just from importing plants and their associated hitchhikers directly to the ports, but likely dispersing pests inadvertently into exurban areas as well, say the researchers. Exurban development and recreational activities, such as camping, have the potential to bring infested material, like firewood, directly into sensitive ecosystems. The researchers claim the key to early detection is through careful monitoring of human activity in coastal states and other vulnerable urban areas.

"A challenge for detecting invasive pests in urban and nearby ecosystems is the fragmentation of the landscape and the many ownerships involved" says Colunga-Garcia. "Public participation in monitoring efforts will perhaps be the most economic and efficient solution for the early detection of exotic pests."

The Ecological Society of America is the world's largest professional organization of ecologists, representing 10,000 scientists in the United States and around the globe. Since its founding in 1915, ESA has promoted the responsible application of ecological principles to the solution of environmental problems through ESA reports, journals, research, and expert testimony to Congress. ESA publishes four journals and convenes an annual scientific conference.

Katie Kline | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.esa.org

Further reports about: ESA Ecological Impact plant pests rural areas urban areas

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht A new indicator for marine ecosystem changes: the diatom/dinoflagellate index
21.08.2017 | Leibniz-Institut für Ostseeforschung Warnemünde

nachricht Value from wastewater
16.08.2017 | Hochschule Landshut

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Nagoya physicists resolve long-standing mystery of structure-less transition

21.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

Chronic stress induces fatal organ dysfunctions via a new neural circuit

21.08.2017 | Health and Medicine

Scientists from the MSU studied new liquid-crystalline photochrom

21.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>