Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

For forests, an earlier spring than ever

06.06.2014

Study finds climate change leads to increased growing season and allows forests to store more CO2

Every spring, as the weather warms, trees in forests up and down the east coast explode in a bright green display of life as leaves fill their branches, and every fall, those same leaves provide one of nature's great color displays of vivid yellow, orange and red.

Over the last two decades, spurred by higher temperatures caused by climate change, Harvard scientists say, forests throughout the Eastern U.S. have experienced earlier springs and later autumns than ever before.

Using a combination of satellite imagery, tower-mounted instruments and on-the-ground observations, research associate Trevor Keenan and Andrew Richardson, associate professor of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, along with colleagues from 7 different institutions, found that forests throughout the eastern US are showing signs of spring growth earlier than ever, and the growing season in some areas extends further into the fall.

That expanded growing season, they say, has enabled forests to store as much as 26 million metric tons more CO2 than before. The study is described in a June 1 paper published in Nature Climate Change.

"What we find in this paper is an increase in the growing season of forests in the eastern U.S. due to recent climate change," Keenan said. "This has been beneficial for forests in the past, but we do not expect the response to continue unchecked in the future. It must also be kept in mind that this positive effect of warming is but one amid a barrage of detrimental impacts of climate change on the Earth's ecosystems."

Though the fact that forests can store more carbon is a good thing, both Keenan and Richardson warned that continued climate change could lead to more dramatic negative consequences in the future.

"If forests weren't storing additional carbon in this manner, we would be even worse off in terms of atmospheric CO2 levels, so at the moment, it's a good thing…but this is not going to solve the CO2 problem," Richardson said. "Yes, 26 million metric tons is a lot of carbon, but it's still small when compared to fossil fuel emissions.

"And climate change isn't just about warmer temperatures," he continued. "It's also about changes in precipitation patterns…so in the future, an earlier spring might not help forests take up more carbon, if they end up running out of water in mid-summer."

To find evidence for the earlier spring, Keenan and Richardson integrated observations from three sources – satellite imagery, ground observations and instrument towers.

By collecting data across three different scales, Richardson said, Keenan was able to capture both a region-wide picture of the eastern forest – which stretches along the eastern seaboard from Maine to Georgia, and as far inland as Wisconsin – as well as a more granular measurement of individual sites.

By using satellite data, Keenan tracked when forests across the region began to turn green in the spring, and when leaves began to turn in the fall. Ground observations made every three to seven days at the Harvard Forest in Petersham and a long-term research site in New Hampshire provided direct information about the state of the buds, leaves and branches.

When combined with data collected from instrument towers, the various data sets allowed Keenan, Richardson and colleagues to paint a richly detailed picture that shows spring starting earlier, and the growing season lasting longer than at any point in the last two decades.

"Basically, we showed that there are three different ways of looking at this, and they all show the same result – spring is getting earlier," Richardson said. "When you look at the patterns across both space and time, and year-to-year at individual sites, and when you look across different species, the same patterns hold up…that gives us confidence that there's something going on."

Another important finding, Richardson said, is that the research identifies a significant source of error in existing computer models of how forest ecosystems work. It turns out that these models don't properly reflect how spring and autumn temperatures control the start and end of the growing season.

"What that means if you run these models forward 100 years, they won't be accurate," he explained. "This shows an opportunity to improve the models and how they simulate how forests will work under future climate scenarios."

The real power of the findings, however, may be in helping make the effects of climate change more tangible to the general public.

"If you tell people the leaves are going to start coming out in mid-April, and it used to be in early May, that's something people can relate to more easily than describing temperature-change records," Richardson said. "People are just inherently fascinated by the passing of the seasons and weather, and how those two are connected."

"The interesting thing about the findings is that we can watch climate change happen," Keenan said. "Spring is earlier than it used to be, and autumn is later. Everyone can understand that, regardless of their predispositions regarding climate change."

Peter Reuell | Eurek Alert!
Further information:
http://www.harvard.edu/

Further reports about: CO2 Harvard branches forests leaves observations satellite season spring

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Value from wastewater
16.08.2017 | Hochschule Landshut

nachricht Species Richness – a false friend? Scientists want to improve biodiversity assessments
01.08.2017 | Carl von Ossietzky-Universität Oldenburg

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

Im Focus: Scientists improve forecast of increasing hazard on Ecuadorian volcano

Researchers from the University of Miami (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, the Italian Space Agency (ASI), and the Instituto Geofisico--Escuela Politecnica Nacional (IGEPN) of Ecuador, showed an increasing volcanic danger on Cotopaxi in Ecuador using a powerful technique known as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR).

The Andes region in which Cotopaxi volcano is located is known to contain some of the world's most serious volcanic hazard. A mid- to large-size eruption has...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New thruster design increases efficiency for future spaceflight

16.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Transporting spin: A graphene and boron nitride heterostructure creates large spin signals

16.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

A new method for the 3-D printing of living tissues

16.08.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>