Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Extinctions, Loss of Habitat Harm Evolutionary Diversity

20.12.2010
A mathematically driven evolutionary snapshot of woody plants in four similar climates around the world has given scientists a fresh perspective on genetic diversity and threats posed by both extinctions and loss of habitat.

The message from the study, appearing online ahead of publication in Ecology Letters, says lead author Hélène Morlon, is that evolutionary diversity -- the millions of years of evolutionary innovations contained in present-day species -- is more sensitive to extinctions or loss of habitat than long thought. And that, she adds, means conservation efforts really need to take into consideration how species are evolutionarily related.

"We are all interested in preserving biodiversity," said Morlon, a French scientist formerly with the University of Oregon's Center for Ecology and Evolutionary Biology as a postdoctoral researcher and now at the University of California, Berkeley. "This means trying to preserve the most species we can, but remembering that all species are not equal. None of us want to make choices on which species to preserve, but if we have to, we might be interested in preserving the species that are the most unique in evolutionary history. There are also other characteristics of species to consider, of course. Biodiversity is simply too complex to be summarized by a single number -- be it species richness or phylogenetic diversity."

Since conservation efforts take place within specific geographical or geopolitical areas, Morlon said: "It is important to understand how biodiversity is distributed spatially." To consider that, the researchers focused on plant species living within defined areas in Mediterranean-type regions around the world -- Australia, California, Chile and South Africa.

For 538 plant species, which covered 254 genera and 71 families, researchers built an evolutionary tree tracing them back to their common ancestor. They then applied mathematical approaches that considered the increase of evolutionary diversity with the size of geographic areas, as well as the decay of evolutionary similarity with the geographic separation between various communities.

The newly described approach -- one of the first to mathematically compute spatial diversity patterns involving phylogenetic relationships -- is based on realistic ancestry trees. There is a general belief that only a small amount of evolutionary diversity is being lost when extinction occurs. This would be true if the terminal branches of phylogenetic trees were short, said Morlon. But phylogenetic trees typically have long terminal branches; the impact of extinction on phylogenetic diversity is huge.

"When you think about species, you usually think of, say, those in the Northwest, and they are not present in South Africa," she said. "When people have thought about preserving the tree of life, not preserving only species but also all this evolutionary history, they have tended to think at a global scale. If you consider a branch of the tree of life that is present in the Northwest and also in South- Africa, you can lose one while the other remains to preserve diversity on the planet. These connections are important to make, but it is important to preserve phylogenetic diversity at regional scales, not only the global scale."

"The tools that conservationists use to preserve species at regional scales are not well adapted for preserving phylogenetic diversity," said Morlon, who is also on the faculty of Ecole Polytechnique in France. "This paper gives some clues on how to preserve that diversity."

"The beauty of Helene's work is that she has truly brought together ideas from ecology and evolution," said co-author Jessica Green, a UO biologist in the Center for Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (CEEB) and the Santa Fe Institute. "If you open any ecology textbook a central theme is island biogeography, which was developed by Robert MacArthur and E. O. Wilson to explain why larger islands have more species on them than smaller islands. Helene has brought evolution front and center to this classic field of study. I anticipate that her ideas about how evolutionary history increases with increasing habitat area will land in the next generation of science textbooks."

Study co-authors with Morlon and Green, who was named Dec. 15 as a 2011 TED Senior Fellow, were: Dylan W. Schwilk of Texas Tech University; Jessica A. Bryant of the UO CEEB and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Pablo A. Marquet of Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, the Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity in Santiago, Chile, and the Santa Fe Institute in New Mexico; Anthony G. Rebelo of the South African National Biodiversity Institute in Kirstenbosch, South Africa; Catherine Tauss of University of Western Australia in Perth; and Brendan Bohannan of the UO CEEB.

The National Science Foundation supported the research through grants to UO professors Green and Bohannan. Additional funding was provided through FONDAP grants to Marquet from Chile's National Commission for Science and Technology.

About the University of Oregon
The University of Oregon is a world-class teaching and research institution and Oregon's flagship public university. The UO is a member of the Association of American Universities (AAU), an organization made up of the 63 leading public and private research institutions in the United States and Canada. The UO is one of only two AAU members in the Pacific Northwest.

Contact: Jim Barlow, director of science and research communications, 541-346-3481, jebarlow@uoregon.edu

Sources: Helene Morlon, postdoctoral researcher at the University of California, Berkeley, 209-201-7292, hmorlon@berkeley.edu, and Jessica Green, professor of biology, University of Oregon, 541-346-4812, jlgreen@uoregon.edu

Links:
Morlon webpage: http://www.cmap.polytechnique.fr/~morlon/index.html
Green faculty page: http://ceeb.uoregon.edu/faculty_pages/Green.shtml
Bohannan faculty page: http://ceeb.uoregon.edu/faculty_pages/Bohannan.shtml
UO Center for Ecology and Evolutionary Biology: http://ceeb.uoregon.edu/
Marquet: http://www.santafe.edu/about/people/profile/Pablo%20Marquet

Jim Barlow | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.uoregon.edu

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Preservation of floodplains is flood protection
27.09.2017 | Technische Universität München

nachricht Conservationists are sounding the alarm: parrots much more threatened than assumed
15.09.2017 | Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Electrode materials from the microwave oven

19.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

New material for digital memories of the future

19.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

Physics boosts artificial intelligence methods

19.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>