Researchers from the UFZ warn that ecosystems will change dramatically
In their joint publication in the journal „Ecology Letters" German and American biologists have reported an increase in biomass production in ecosystems colonised by non-native plant species. In the face of climate change, these and other changes to ecosystems are predicted to become more frequent, according to the researchers.
Invasive exotic plant species, such as the Turkish Rocket (Bunias orientalis), are often fast-growing and competitive. They may alter ecosystems by gaining dominance, increasing productivity and replacing native plant species. The current study shows that in grassland ecosystems, native generalist herbivores such as voles – which are usually considered as a pest – may provide substantial resistance to plant invasions.
Photo: Harald Auge/UFZ
All over the world, plant and animal species are increasingly encroaching upon ecosystems where they don't belong as a result of human influence. This phenomenon is known as a biological invasion. Observational studies on biological invasions show that the invasion of non-native plant species can alter ecosystems. One important aspect of this is biomass production: compared to intact ecosystems, the productivity of ecosystems with non-native species is considerably higher.
„In such purely observational studies however, it is not possible to differentiate between cause and effect", says Dr. Harald Auge from the Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research (UFZ). „The question is whether exotic plant species prefer to colonise more productive ecosystems, or whether increased productivity is a result of the invasion."
To get to the bottom of this question, UFZ researchers joined forces with colleagues from the Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, the University of Montana, the University of California and the US Forest Service and staged invasions by setting up experimental sites in three disparate grassland regions -in Central Germany, Montana and California, on which 20 native plant species (from the respective region) and 20 exotic plant species were sown.
Researchers investigated whether and to which extent herbivorous small mammals such as mice, voles or ground squirrels as well as mechanical disturbance to the soil would influence exotic plant species colonizing ability.
The experimental design was exactly the same for all three regions to ensure comparability. We wanted to find out whether superordinate relationships were playing a role, irrespective of land use, species compositions and climate differences", explains Dr Auge. When the experimental sites were not subject to any mechanical disturbance and when herbivorous small mammals had open access to the sites, then no differences could be found between the three regions in their reaction to the sowing of exotic species: biomass production was found to be only slightly higher than for ecosystems with exclusively native plant species, and susceptibility to invasions was low.
„The herbivorous small mammals really surprised us", says Dr Auge. „Their presence and appetite is largely responsible for the resistance of grasslands to exotic plant species invasions". If the herbivorous small mammals were excluded using fences or the soil disturbed mechanically or both, then the results were considerably different: ecosystems proved to be less resistant to invasions and biomass production turned out to be considerably higher.
„It was perplexing that an increase in productivity applied to all three (from a climate perspective) completely disparate regions. Hence, there seems to be a universal phenomenon going on: exotic plant species do not necessarily prefer more productive ecosystems -their exotic provenance as such leads to an increased production of biomass, which is thus an effect and not the cause of the invasion", Dr Auge resumes.
So far there has been no explanation as to why exotic plant species increase biomass production so dramatically. It is possible that only those non-native species that are particularly productive and competitive are able to establish successfully in a new area. Another cause could be the lack of parasites and pathogens specialised on these species.
To investigate the long-term reactions of grassland ecosystems on the establishment of non-native plant species, the researchers plan future investigations on the further development of the species on the experimental sites. Dr Auge: „We assume that the non-natives will increasingly crowd out the natives from the ecosystem -a reduction in species richness would imply another dramatic change to native ecosystems." Nicole Silbermann
Photos & links: http://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=32498
Publication: Maron, J.L.; Auge, H.; Pearson, D. E.; Korell, L.; Hensen, I.; Suding, K. N.; Stein, C. (2014) Staged invasions across disparate grasslands: effects of consumers, disturbance and seed provenance on productivity and species richness. Ecology Letters 17: 499-507. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ele.12250
Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research - UFZ
Dr. Harald Auge
or Tilo Arnhold, Susanne Hufe (UFZ Press)
Tel.: +49-(0)341-235-1635, -1630
In the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ), scientists conduct research into the causes and consequences of far-reaching environmental changes. Their areas of study cover water resources, biodiversity, the consequences of climate change and possible adaptation strategies, environmental technologies and biotechnologies, bio-energy, the effects of chemicals in the environment and the way they influence health, modelling and social-scientific issues. Its guiding principle: Our research contributes to the sustainable use of natural resources and helps to provide long-term protection for these vital assets in the face of global change. The UFZ employs more than 1,100 staff at its sites in Leipzig, Halle and Magdeburg. It is funded by the federal government, Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt. http://www.ufz.de/
The Helmholtz Association contributes to solving major and urgent issues in society, science and industry through scientific excellence in six research areas: Energy, earth and environment, health, key technologies, structure of matter as well as aviation, aerospace and transportation. The Helmholtz Association is the largest scientific organisation in Germany, with 35,000 employees in 18 research centres and an annual budget of around €3.8 billion. Its work is carried out in the tradition of the great natural scientist Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894). http://www.helmholtz.de/
Nicole Silbermann/Tilo Arnhold | UFZ News
Northern bald ibises fit for their journey to Tuscany
21.08.2015 | Veterinärmedizinische Universität Wien
Boreal forests challenged by global change
21.08.2015 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
A University of Oklahoma astrophysicist and his Chinese collaborator have found two supermassive black holes in Markarian 231, the nearest quasar to Earth, using observations from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope.
The discovery of two supermassive black holes--one larger one and a second, smaller one--are evidence of a binary black hole and suggests that supermassive...
A team of European researchers have developed a model to simulate the impact of tsunamis generated by earthquakes and applied it to the Eastern Mediterranean. The results show how tsunami waves could hit and inundate coastal areas in southern Italy and Greece. The study is published today (27 August) in Ocean Science, an open access journal of the European Geosciences Union (EGU).
Though not as frequent as in the Pacific and Indian oceans, tsunamis also occur in the Mediterranean, mainly due to earthquakes generated when the African...
In mountainous regions earthquakes often cause strong landslides, which can be exacerbated by heavy rain. However, after an initial increase, the frequency of these mass wasting events, often enormous and dangerous, declines, in fact independently of meteorological events and aftershocks.
These new findings are presented by a German-Franco-Japanese team of geoscientists in the current issue of the journal Geology, under the lead of the GFZ...
Bacteria do not cease to amaze us with their survival strategies. A research team from the University of Basel's Biozentrum has now discovered how bacteria enter a sleep mode using a so-called FIC toxin. In the current issue of “Cell Reports”, the scientists describe the mechanism of action and also explain why their discovery provides new insights into the evolution of pathogens.
For many poisons there are antidotes which neutralize their toxic effect. Toxin-antitoxin systems in bacteria work in a similar manner: As long as a cell...
It comes when called, bringing care utensils with it and recording how they are used: Fraunhofer IPA is developing an intelligent care cart that provides care staff with physical and informational support in their day-to-day work. The scientists at Fraunhofer IPA have now completed a first prototype. In doing so, they are continuing in their efforts to improve working conditions in the care sector and are developing solutions designed to address the challenges of demographic change.
Technical assistance systems can improve the difficult working conditions in residential nursing homes and hospitals by helping the staff in their work and...
20.08.2015 | Event News
20.08.2015 | Event News
19.08.2015 | Event News
28.08.2015 | Physics and Astronomy
28.08.2015 | Health and Medicine
28.08.2015 | Life Sciences