Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Exotic plant species alter ecosystem productivity

11.03.2014

Researchers from the UFZ warn that ecosystems will change dramatically

In their joint publication in the journal „Ecology Letters" German and American biologists have reported an increase in biomass production in ecosystems colonised by non-native plant species. In the face of climate change, these and other changes to ecosystems are predicted to become more frequent, according to the researchers.


Invasive exotic plant species, such as the Turkish Rocket (Bunias orientalis), are often fast-growing and competitive. They may alter ecosystems by gaining dominance, increasing productivity and replacing native plant species. The current study shows that in grassland ecosystems, native generalist herbivores such as voles – which are usually considered as a pest – may provide substantial resistance to plant invasions.

Photo: Harald Auge/UFZ

All over the world, plant and animal species are increasingly encroaching upon ecosystems where they don't belong as a result of human influence. This phenomenon is known as a biological invasion. Observational studies on biological invasions show that the invasion of non-native plant species can alter ecosystems. One important aspect of this is biomass production: compared to intact ecosystems, the productivity of ecosystems with non-native species is considerably higher.

„In such purely observational studies however, it is not possible to differentiate between cause and effect", says Dr. Harald Auge from the Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research (UFZ). „The question is whether exotic plant species prefer to colonise more productive ecosystems, or whether increased productivity is a result of the invasion."

... more about:
»ecosystem »species

To get to the bottom of this question, UFZ researchers joined forces with colleagues from the Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, the University of Montana, the University of California and the US Forest Service and staged invasions by setting up experimental sites in three disparate grassland regions -in Central Germany, Montana and California, on which 20 native plant species (from the respective region) and 20 exotic plant species were sown.

Researchers investigated whether and to which extent herbivorous small mammals such as mice, voles or ground squirrels as well as mechanical disturbance to the soil would influence exotic plant species colonizing ability.

The experimental design was exactly the same for all three regions to ensure comparability. We wanted to find out whether superordinate relationships were playing a role, irrespective of land use, species compositions and climate differences", explains Dr Auge. When the experimental sites were not subject to any mechanical disturbance and when herbivorous small mammals had open access to the sites, then no differences could be found between the three regions in their reaction to the sowing of exotic species: biomass production was found to be only slightly higher than for ecosystems with exclusively native plant species, and susceptibility to invasions was low.

„The herbivorous small mammals really surprised us", says Dr Auge. „Their presence and appetite is largely responsible for the resistance of grasslands to exotic plant species invasions". If the herbivorous small mammals were excluded using fences or the soil disturbed mechanically or both, then the results were considerably different: ecosystems proved to be less resistant to invasions and biomass production turned out to be considerably higher.

„It was perplexing that an increase in productivity applied to all three (from a climate perspective) completely disparate regions. Hence, there seems to be a universal phenomenon going on: exotic plant species do not necessarily prefer more productive ecosystems -their exotic provenance as such leads to an increased production of biomass, which is thus an effect and not the cause of the invasion", Dr Auge resumes.

So far there has been no explanation as to why exotic plant species increase biomass production so dramatically. It is possible that only those non-native species that are particularly productive and competitive are able to establish successfully in a new area. Another cause could be the lack of parasites and pathogens specialised on these species.

To investigate the long-term reactions of grassland ecosystems on the establishment of non-native plant species, the researchers plan future investigations on the further development of the species on the experimental sites. Dr Auge: „We assume that the non-natives will increasingly crowd out the natives from the ecosystem -a reduction in species richness would imply another dramatic change to native ecosystems." Nicole Silbermann

Photos & links: http://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=32498
 

Publication: Maron, J.L.; Auge, H.; Pearson, D. E.; Korell, L.; Hensen, I.; Suding, K. N.; Stein, C. (2014) Staged invasions across disparate grasslands: effects of consumers, disturbance and seed provenance on productivity and species richness. Ecology Letters 17: 499-507. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ele.12250

Further information:

Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research - UFZ

Dr. Harald Auge

Tel.: +49-(0)345-558-5309

http://www.ufz.de/index.php?de=1153

or Tilo Arnhold, Susanne Hufe (UFZ Press)

Tel.: +49-(0)341-235-1635, -1630

http://www.ufz.de/index.php?de=640

In the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ), scientists conduct research into the causes and consequences of far-reaching environmental changes. Their areas of study cover water resources, biodiversity, the consequences of climate change and possible adaptation strategies, environmental technologies and biotechnologies, bio-energy, the effects of chemicals in the environment and the way they influence health, modelling and social-scientific issues. Its guiding principle: Our research contributes to the sustainable use of natural resources and helps to provide long-term protection for these vital assets in the face of global change. The UFZ employs more than 1,100 staff at its sites in Leipzig, Halle and Magdeburg. It is funded by the federal government, Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt. http://www.ufz.de/

The Helmholtz Association contributes to solving major and urgent issues in society, science and industry through scientific excellence in six research areas: Energy, earth and environment, health, key technologies, structure of matter as well as aviation, aerospace and transportation. The Helmholtz Association is the largest scientific organisation in Germany, with 35,000 employees in 18 research centres and an annual budget of around €3.8 billion. Its work is carried out in the tradition of the great natural scientist Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894). http://www.helmholtz.de/

Nicole Silbermann/Tilo Arnhold | UFZ News

Further reports about: ecosystem species

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Coorong Fish Hedge Their Bets for Survival
27.03.2015 | University of Adelaide

nachricht Greener Industry If Environmental Authorities Change Strategy
27.03.2015 | University of Gothenburg

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Experiment Provides the Best Look Yet at 'Warm Dense Matter' at Cores of Giant Planets

In an experiment at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, scientists precisely measured the temperature and structure of aluminum as...

Im Focus: Energy-autonomous and wireless monitoring protects marine gearboxes

The IPH presents a solution at HANNOVER MESSE 2015 to make ship traffic more reliable while decreasing the maintenance costs at the same time. In cooperation with project partners, the research institute from Hannover, Germany, has developed a sensor system which continuously monitors the condition of the marine gearbox, thus preventing breakdowns. Special feature: the monitoring system works wirelessly and energy-autonomously. The required electrical power is generated where it is needed – directly at the sensor.

As well as cars need to be certified regularly (in Germany by the TÜV – Technical Inspection Association), ships need to be inspected – if the powertrain stops...

Im Focus: 3-D satellite, GPS earthquake maps isolate impacts in real time

Method produced by UI researcher could improve reaction time to deadly, expensive quakes

When an earthquake hits, the faster first responders can get to an impacted area, the more likely infrastructure--and lives--can be saved.

Im Focus: Atlantic Ocean overturning found to slow down already today

The Atlantic overturning is one of Earth’s most important heat transport systems, pumping warm water northwards and cold water southwards. Also known as the Gulf Stream system, it is responsible for the mild climate in northwestern Europe. 

Scientists now found evidence for a slowdown of the overturning – multiple lines of observation suggest that in recent decades, the current system has been...

Im Focus: Robot inspects concrete garage floors and bridge roadways for damage

Because they are regularly subjected to heavy vehicle traffic, emissions, moisture and salt, above- and underground parking garages, as well as bridges, frequently experience large areas of corrosion. Most inspection systems to date have only been capable of inspecting smaller surface areas.

From April 13 to April 17 at the Hannover Messe (hall 2, exhibit booth C16), engineers from the Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing IZFP will be...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

World Conference On Regenerative Medicine 2015: Registration And Abstract Submission Now Open

25.03.2015 | Event News

University presidents from all over the world meet in Hamburg

19.03.2015 | Event News

10. CeBiTec Symposium zum Big Data-Problem

17.03.2015 | Event News

 
Latest News

Two Most Destructive Termite Species Forming Superswarms in South Florida

27.03.2015 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

ORNL-Led Team Demonstrates Desalination with Nanoporous Graphene Membrane

27.03.2015 | Materials Sciences

Coorong Fish Hedge Their Bets for Survival

27.03.2015 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>