Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Epic ocean voyages of coral larvae revealed

21.08.2013
Models provide first-ever simulated glimpse into dispersal and potential effects of climate change

A new computer simulation conducted at the University of Bristol (UB) and University of Miami (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science has revealed the epic, ocean-spanning journeys travelled by millimetre-sized coral larvae through the world's seas.


The pathways traveled by >14 million modeled coral larval over a one-year period using the Connectivity Modeling System developed by Dr. Claire Paris at the University of Miami. Note the empty no-man's-land that larvae have difficulty breaching -- this is the East Pacific Dispersal Barrier.

Credit: S. Wood/Univ. of Bristol

The study, published in Global Ecology and Biogeography, is the first to recreate the oceanic paths along which corals disperse globally, and will eventually aid predictions of how coral reef distributions may shift with climate change.

Coral reefs are under increasing threat from the combined pressures of human activity, natural disturbances and climate change. It has been suggested that coral may respond to these changing conditions by shifting to more favourable refuges, but their ability to do this will depend on the ocean currents.

Sally Wood, a Ph.D. candidate at UB, explains: "Dispersal is an extremely important process for corals. As they are attached to the seafloor as adults, the only way they can escape harmful conditions or replenish damaged reefs is by releasing their young to the mercy of the ocean currents."

Where these intrepid explorers end up is therefore an important question for coral reef conservation. However, tracking the movement of such tiny larvae in the vast oceans is an impossible task. "This is where computer simulation comes in," adds Wood.

Collaborating across the pond, Wood used the Connectivity Modeling System (CMS) developed by Dr. Claire Paris, associate professor of Applied Marine Physics at UM to identify the billions of paths taken. This larval migration model had been tested in a previous study against the reef-building coral Montastraea annularis in the Caribbean, where consensus between modeled estimates of genetic structure were found.

"Simulating an unprecedented number of mass spawning events from all known shallow reefs in the global ocean proved essential to identifying critical long dispersal distance events that promote the establishment of new coral colonies. What we found using the CMS are rare long distance dispersers that are thought to contribute to species persistence in isolated coral reefs, and to geographic range shifts during environmental changes," said Paris.

Some of the results yielded by the team were surprising. While the majority of simulated larvae settled close to home, others travelled as far as 9,000 km., almost the entire width of the Pacific Ocean. When considered over multiple generations, this means that corals are able to cross entire ocean basins, using islands and coastlines as 'stepping stones.' However, a few places proved too distant for all but the hardiest of larvae: Coral in the tropical eastern Pacific are almost entirely cut off from those on islands of the central Pacific by a daunting 5000 km of open ocean. Geographically isolated reefs such as these may be particularly vulnerable, as they are not stocked with external recruits as frequently.

The model captured the start of the coral larvae's journey to its survival, and further work is ongoing to complete the story. Even after overcoming the trials of the open ocean, coral larvae arriving at a suitable location must first negotiate a 'wall of mouths' to settle on the reef face, and then compete fiercely for the space to thrive and grow.

Development of the CMS was funded through the NSF-RAPID program (OCE-1048697) to CBP.

The University of Miami's mission is to educate and nurture students, to create knowledge, and to provide service to our community and beyond. Committed to excellence and proud of the diversity of our University family, we strive to develop future leaders of our nation and the world. Founded in the 1940's, the Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science has grown into one of the world's premier marine and atmospheric research institutions. Offering dynamic interdisciplinary academics, the Rosenstiel School is dedicated to helping communities to better understand the planet, participating in the establishment of environmental policies, and aiding in the improvement of society and quality of life. For more information, please visit http://www.rsmas.miami.edu.

Paper: 'Modeling dispersal and connectivity of broadcast spawning corals at the global scale', by S. Wood, C.B. Paris, A. Ridgwell, & E.J. Hendy. Global Ecology and Biogeography (2013).

Barbra Gonzalez | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.rsmas.miami.edu

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Bioinvasion on the rise
15.02.2017 | Universität Konstanz

nachricht Litter Levels in the Depths of the Arctic are On the Rise
10.02.2017 | Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

From rocks in Colorado, evidence of a 'chaotic solar system'

23.02.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

'Quartz' crystals at the Earth's core power its magnetic field

23.02.2017 | Earth Sciences

Antimicrobial substances identified in Komodo dragon blood

23.02.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>