Communities in nature are likely to be a lot more sensitive to change than previously thought, according to a new study at Rice University.
The study, which appears this week in Nature Communications, shows that scientists concerned about human influence on the biosphere need to take a deeper look at how altering the dynamics of a population — for example, by removing large members of a species through overfishing — can have measurable consequences, said Rice ecologist Volker Rudolf.
“Natural communities are increasingly altered through human impact, and ecologists have long strived to determine how these changes influence communities,” Rudolf said. He noted the disappearance of a species is the most extreme but not the only cause of biodiversity loss.
“That’s the last thing that happens after you mess up the entire ecosystem for a long period of time,” he said. By then, changes forced upon the structure of a population — such as the ratio of young to old in a species — have already been felt up and down the food chain.
Rudolf suspected species play various roles and their effects on the environment change as they progress through their lifecycles, to the degree that altering these life “stages” within a species could have a significant impact. He and Rice graduate student Nick Rasmussen made a considerable effort to prove it.
For the painstaking experiments that started in 2009, Rudolf, Rasmussen and their colleagues chose dragonflies and water-diving beetles to represent species that have major impact on their respective communities — in this case, fishless ponds — and then created dozens of miniature environments to analyze that impact. Manipulating the presence of different developmental stages within a predator species in each pond helped the researchers determine that such changes did alter the dynamics of complex ecosystems in a measurable way.
“Other than being the largest and most voracious predators in these communities, they’re totally different,” Rudolf said of the apex predators. “We figured if we saw any generalities across these two species, then there’s something to our theory.”
They found that altering which classes of size were present in a population also altered the structure of the entire community and ultimately how the whole ecosystem functioned. Also important, Rudolf said, was that changing the structure of populations sometimes had bigger effects on the ecosystem than changing the predator species.
The results, he said, “challenge classical assumptions and studies that say we can make predictions by assuming that all individuals of a species are the same. You don’t expect a toddler to do the same thing as a grownup, and the same is the case for animals.”
The study could also explain why such human activities as size-selective harvesting can alter the structure of entire food webs in some ocean systems, even when no species had gone extinct and the total biomass of the targeted fish remained the same, he said.
“While these changes would be hard to predict by the classical approach, our results suggests such changes are expected when human activities alter the population structure of keystone species in an ecosystem,” Rudolf said. “Thus, natural ecosystems are likely to be much more fragile then we previously thought.”Rice University
David Ruth | EurekAlert!
Dispersal of Fish Eggs by Water Birds – Just a Myth?
19.02.2018 | Universität Basel
Removing fossil fuel subsidies will not reduce CO2 emissions as much as hoped
08.02.2018 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
University of Connecticut researchers have created a biodegradable composite made of silk fibers that can be used to repair broken load-bearing bones without the complications sometimes presented by other materials.
Repairing major load-bearing bones such as those in the leg can be a long and uncomfortable process.
Study published in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces is the outcome of an international effort that included teams from Dresden and Berlin in Germany, and the US.
Scientists at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) together with colleagues from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) and the University of Virginia...
Novel highly efficient and brilliant gamma-ray source: Based on model calculations, physicists of the Max PIanck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg propose a novel method for an efficient high-brilliance gamma-ray source. A giant collimated gamma-ray pulse is generated from the interaction of a dense ultra-relativistic electron beam with a thin solid conductor. Energetic gamma-rays are copiously produced as the electron beam splits into filaments while propagating across the conductor. The resulting gamma-ray energy and flux enable novel experiments in nuclear and fundamental physics.
The typical wavelength of light interacting with an object of the microcosm scales with the size of this object. For atoms, this ranges from visible light to...
Stable joint cartilage can be produced from adult stem cells originating from bone marrow. This is made possible by inducing specific molecular processes occurring during embryonic cartilage formation, as researchers from the University and University Hospital of Basel report in the scientific journal PNAS.
Certain mesenchymal stem/stromal cells from the bone marrow of adults are considered extremely promising for skeletal tissue regeneration. These adult stem...
In the fight against cancer, scientists are developing new drugs to hit tumor cells at so far unused weak points. Such a “sore spot” is the protein complex...
13.04.2018 | Event News
12.04.2018 | Event News
09.04.2018 | Event News
20.04.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
20.04.2018 | Interdisciplinary Research
20.04.2018 | Physics and Astronomy