Sludge obtained from water treatment plants were studied as suitable materials to be used in the pottery industry to make suitable pottery products.
Sludge is a by-product of water treatment. Sludge is produced during the clarification and filtration process in the water treatment system. It is also produced from the accumulated solids removed from sedimentation basin or settling tank.
The increasing number of water treatment plants has led to a considerable increase in sludge generation. The disposal of sludge from water treatment operations poses a problem in Malaysia.
The problem is acute because of the scarcity of space to store the sludge. The advantage of water sludge is that it is not considered as hazardous waste.
The objective of this project is to reduce the environmental impact generated by the sludge coming from the Water Treatment Plant (WTP), through a new sludge management concept that introduces a method that re-uses sludge as raw material for the structural pottery industry.
Pottery is the type of ceramic material, which the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has defined as wall fired ceramic wares that contain clay when formed except technical, structural and refractory product.
The term pottery is also used for a technique involving ceramic, where clay is mixed with other minerals and is formed into objects, including vessels generally designed for utilitarian purposes.
Ceramics have characteristics that enable them to be used in a wide variety of applications including i) high heat capacity and low heat conductivity, ii) corrosion resistance, iii) electrically insulating, semi-conducting, or super conducting, iv) non-magnetic and magnetic, and v) hard and strong, but brittle.
The Eco-pottery is made from water treatment sludge. During the process, the organic substances in the sludge were eliminated through burning, while the heavy metals were safely contained in the product.
Furthermore, energy is saved during the production process since sludge is used as combustion during the burning process. Technically the Eco-pottery has demonstrated that the WTP sludge could be viably used in the mixture to produce pottery. The chemical composition, the energy properties of the sludge and the mineral contained in the sludge were analysed in a laboratory.
Chemical composition is vital because of its effect on the product behaviour. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Total Nitrogen Measurement (TNM) determined the chemical composition of water treatment sludge.
The physical characteristics of the sludge were also tested. The test conducted is moisture content and plasticity of the sludge. The mineral compositions were determined by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) was silica, kaolinite, muscovite, iron oxide and iron hydrogen phosphate.
Water treatment sludge contained high concentration of free silica. The Eco-pottery was made using throwing technique. The samples are then pressed into mould to make prismatic bar each mark with 100mm measurement. Linear shrinkage was determined by measuring the length of the samples before and after the firing stage using a calliper with a precision of Â±0.01 mm. Water absorption was done according to the Malaysian Standard, MS ISO 10545-3:2001. Firing properties were obtained by observing whether potteries resistant to low and high temperature.
The results show that water treatment sludge can be used as raw materials in the production of pottery products. This will provide reuse option to water treatment sludge.
FOR MORE INFORMATION :
Azinoor Azida Binti Abu Bakar
Marfiah Ab. Wahid
Institute of Infrastructure, Engineering & Sustainable Management (IIESM)
University Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.
Email : firstname.lastname@example.org
Litter is present throughout the world’s oceans: 1,220 species affected
27.03.2017 | Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung
International network connects experimental research in European waters
21.03.2017 | Leibniz-Institut für Gewässerökologie und Binnenfischerei (IGB)
The Institute of Semiconductor Technology and the Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, both members of the Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology (LENA), at Technische Universität Braunschweig are partners in a new European research project entitled ChipScope, which aims to develop a completely new and extremely small optical microscope capable of observing the interior of living cells in real time. A consortium of 7 partners from 5 countries will tackle this issue with very ambitious objectives during a four-year research program.
To demonstrate the usefulness of this new scientific tool, at the end of the project the developed chip-sized microscope will be used to observe in real-time...
Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...
Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...
In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...
20.03.2017 | Event News
14.03.2017 | Event News
07.03.2017 | Event News
28.03.2017 | Life Sciences
28.03.2017 | Information Technology
28.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy