Sludge obtained from water treatment plants were studied as suitable materials to be used in the pottery industry to make suitable pottery products.
Sludge is a by-product of water treatment. Sludge is produced during the clarification and filtration process in the water treatment system. It is also produced from the accumulated solids removed from sedimentation basin or settling tank.
The increasing number of water treatment plants has led to a considerable increase in sludge generation. The disposal of sludge from water treatment operations poses a problem in Malaysia.
The problem is acute because of the scarcity of space to store the sludge. The advantage of water sludge is that it is not considered as hazardous waste.
The objective of this project is to reduce the environmental impact generated by the sludge coming from the Water Treatment Plant (WTP), through a new sludge management concept that introduces a method that re-uses sludge as raw material for the structural pottery industry.
Pottery is the type of ceramic material, which the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has defined as wall fired ceramic wares that contain clay when formed except technical, structural and refractory product.
The term pottery is also used for a technique involving ceramic, where clay is mixed with other minerals and is formed into objects, including vessels generally designed for utilitarian purposes.
Ceramics have characteristics that enable them to be used in a wide variety of applications including i) high heat capacity and low heat conductivity, ii) corrosion resistance, iii) electrically insulating, semi-conducting, or super conducting, iv) non-magnetic and magnetic, and v) hard and strong, but brittle.
The Eco-pottery is made from water treatment sludge. During the process, the organic substances in the sludge were eliminated through burning, while the heavy metals were safely contained in the product.
Furthermore, energy is saved during the production process since sludge is used as combustion during the burning process. Technically the Eco-pottery has demonstrated that the WTP sludge could be viably used in the mixture to produce pottery. The chemical composition, the energy properties of the sludge and the mineral contained in the sludge were analysed in a laboratory.
Chemical composition is vital because of its effect on the product behaviour. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Total Nitrogen Measurement (TNM) determined the chemical composition of water treatment sludge.
The physical characteristics of the sludge were also tested. The test conducted is moisture content and plasticity of the sludge. The mineral compositions were determined by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) was silica, kaolinite, muscovite, iron oxide and iron hydrogen phosphate.
Water treatment sludge contained high concentration of free silica. The Eco-pottery was made using throwing technique. The samples are then pressed into mould to make prismatic bar each mark with 100mm measurement. Linear shrinkage was determined by measuring the length of the samples before and after the firing stage using a calliper with a precision of Â±0.01 mm. Water absorption was done according to the Malaysian Standard, MS ISO 10545-3:2001. Firing properties were obtained by observing whether potteries resistant to low and high temperature.
The results show that water treatment sludge can be used as raw materials in the production of pottery products. This will provide reuse option to water treatment sludge.
FOR MORE INFORMATION :
Azinoor Azida Binti Abu Bakar
Marfiah Ab. Wahid
Institute of Infrastructure, Engineering & Sustainable Management (IIESM)
University Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.
Email : firstname.lastname@example.org
Roadmap for better protection of Borneo’s cats and small carnivores
30.05.2016 | Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V.
Worldwide Success of Tyrolean Wastewater Treatment Technology
27.05.2016 | Universität Innsbruck
Physicists of the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics and the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich in collaboration with scientists from the Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg have observed a light-matter phenomenon in nano-optics, which lasts only attoseconds.
The interaction between light and matter is of key importance in nature, the most prominent example being photosynthesis. Light-matter interactions have also...
A biological and energy-efficient process, developed and patented by the University of Innsbruck, converts nitrogen compounds in wastewater treatment facilities into harmless atmospheric nitrogen gas. This innovative technology is now being refined and marketed jointly with the United States’ DC Water and Sewer Authority (DC Water). The largest DEMON®-system in a wastewater treatment plant is currently being built in Washington, DC.
The DEMON®-system was developed and patented by the University of Innsbruck 11 years ago. Today this successful technology has been implemented in about 70...
Permanent magnets are very important for technologies of the future like electromobility and renewable energy, and rare earth elements (REE) are necessary for their manufacture. The Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM in Freiburg, Germany, has now succeeded in identifying promising approaches and materials for new permanent magnets through use of an in-house simulation process based on high-throughput screening (HTS). The team was able to improve magnetic properties this way and at the same time replaced REE with elements that are less expensive and readily available. The results were published in the online technical journal “Scientific Reports”.
The starting point for IWM researchers Wolfgang Körner, Georg Krugel, and Christian Elsässer was a neodymium-iron-nitrogen compound based on a type of...
In the Beyond EUV project, the Fraunhofer Institutes for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen and for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering IOF in Jena are developing key technologies for the manufacture of a new generation of microchips using EUV radiation at a wavelength of 6.7 nm. The resulting structures are barely thicker than single atoms, and they make it possible to produce extremely integrated circuits for such items as wearables or mind-controlled prosthetic limbs.
In 1965 Gordon Moore formulated the law that came to be named after him, which states that the complexity of integrated circuits doubles every one to two...
Characterization of high-quality material reveals important details relevant to next generation nanoelectronic devices
Quantum mechanics is the field of physics governing the behavior of things on atomic scales, where things work very differently from our everyday world.
24.05.2016 | Event News
20.05.2016 | Event News
19.05.2016 | Event News
31.05.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering
31.05.2016 | Life Sciences
31.05.2016 | Information Technology