The Kansas State University-led study looked at the drought tolerance of 426 species of grass from around the world. The goal was to better understand how grasslands in different parts of the world may respond to the changes in frequency and severity of drought in the future.
Grasslands have several important ecological functions, according to Joseph Craine, research assistant professor of biology and the study's lead author. Grasslands convert and store carbon dioxide, are a food source for grazing animals like cattle and bison, and help cool the surrounding atmosphere.
"The idea is that if you maintain a diverse grassland, you'll have a large number of drought-tolerant species ready to take over critical functions if there is a change in climate or an extended period of drought, like what we've had this year," Craine said. "Yet, we've never known which grasslands have drought-tolerant species in them."
Craine conducted the study with Kansas State University's Troy Ocheltree, research assistant of biology; Jesse Nippert, assistant professor of biology; Gene Towne, biology research associate and Konza Prairie Biological Station fire chief; and Adam Skibbe, information resource specialist for the Division of Biology, as well as with colleagues from the University of Oregon and the Nature Conservancy in Minneapolis, Minn. It is the largest study conducted to quantify how tolerant grass species are to severe drought.
To collect data the team planted 500 species of grass taken from six continents. A majority of seeds were provided by the United States Department of Agriculture, while 52 species were collected from the Konza Prairie in the Flint Hills of Kansas. Grasses were grown on campus in a walk-in growth chamber with high intensity lighting that simulated sunny weather. After six weeks, researchers stopped watering the grass samples and observed at what point each grass stopped being able to take up water.
"In the end they all succumbed to drought," Craine said. "But that was our goal: to stress them all enough to know at what point they give in. What we saw was that some of grass species were about as tough as lettuce, meaning that after a day or two without water they would start to wilt and curl up. Others, however, were able to go for a week or two without water."
When comparing the drought resistance across the sampled species, the team found that drought-resistant grasses are well distributed across the world. As a result, grasslands are more likely to tolerate the increased periods and intensity of drought that are predicted with climate change in the future, Craine said.
"If we still have grasslands that are diverse, the grasslands are going to continue to function relatively well and not change too much," Craine said. "But when we replace our prairies with ones that just have a few species in it, then it's less likely that grasslands will be able to function normally in the future. That affects the animals and other things that depend on grasslands, making it more likely that the whole ecosystem collapses."
Additionally, researchers developed a drought index for the tested species based on the data. The index details each species' tolerance to drought and can help ecologists understand why grasslands around the world are composed of their species. More than 11,000 species of grass exist on Earth.
The benefits of a diverse grassland are evident when the U.S. faced a drought in the 1980s, said Towne, who also collects plant community data.
"After that drought we saw a booming explosion of tall grasses the following year," Towne said. "So it really backs up what the study found: that drought forces the grasslands to adapt to the weather conditions so they can get through that rough period."
The study, "Global diversity of drought tolerance and grassland climate-change resilience," was recently published online at Nature Climate Change: http://www.nature.com/nclimate/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nclimate1634.html
Joseph Craine | EurekAlert!
Invasive Insects Cost the World Billions Per Year
04.10.2016 | University of Adelaide
Malaysia's unique freshwater mussels in danger
27.09.2016 | The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.
"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...
In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.
A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...
By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.
"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...
COMPAMED has become the leading international marketplace for suppliers of medical manufacturing. The trade fair, which takes place every November and is co-located to MEDICA in Dusseldorf, has been steadily growing over the past years and shows that medical technology remains a rapidly growing market.
In 2016, the joint pavilion by the IVAM Microtechnology Network, the Product Market “High-tech for Medical Devices”, will be located in Hall 8a again and will...
'Ferroelectric' materials can switch between different states of electrical polarization in response to an external electric field. This flexibility means they show promise for many applications, for example in electronic devices and computer memory. Current ferroelectric materials are highly valued for their thermal and chemical stability and rapid electro-mechanical responses, but creating a material that is scalable down to the tiny sizes needed for technologies like silicon-based semiconductors (Si-based CMOS) has proven challenging.
Now, Hiroshi Funakubo and co-workers at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, in collaboration with researchers across Japan, have conducted experiments to...
14.10.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
12.10.2016 | Event News
21.10.2016 | Health and Medicine
21.10.2016 | Information Technology
21.10.2016 | Materials Sciences