Co-authored by Penn State electrical engineer Noel Giebink with lead author Bethany Bernardo, an undergraduate in his group, and colleagues at IMEC in Belgium, Argonne National Lab, Northwestern, and Princeton, the paper suggests design rules for making more efficient solar cells in the future.
Giebink, Penn State
An electron wave function, indicated by orange shading, spreads across several nanocrystalline fullerene molecules in this representation of an organic solar cell heterojunction.
Organic solar cells currently have a top efficiency of approximately 10 percent in the laboratory, much less than inorganic single crystal silicon. One of the challenges to realizing efficient organic cells lies in separating the strongly bound pairs made up of a negatively charged electron and its positively charged hole that result from light absorption, collectively referred to as an exciton. The electron and hole need to be separated in order to make a current.
The way this is done is by creating a heterojunction, which is two different organic semiconductors next to each other, one of which likes to give up an electron and the other which accepts the electron, thereby splitting the original exciton into an electron and hole residing on nearby molecules. A long-standing question in the field, however, is how the nearby electron and hole – still strongly attracted to each other at this stage – manage to separate completely in order to generate current with the efficiency observed in most solar cells.
Over the past few years, a new perspective has proposed that the high separation efficiency relies on a quantum effect – the electron or hole can exist in a wavelike state spread out over several nearby molecules at the same time. When the wave function of one of the carriers collapses at a location far enough away from its partner, the charges can separate more easily. Giebink and colleagues’ work provide compelling new evidence to support this interpretation and identify nanocrystallinity of the common acceptor material made of C60 molecules (also known as fullerenes or buckyballs) as the key that allows this delocalization effect to take place.
This local crystalline order appears to be critical to efficient photocurrent generation in organic solar cells, says Giebink. “A common view in the community is that it takes a bunch of excess energy to break apart the exciton, which meant that there had to be a large energy level difference between the donor and acceptor materials. But that big energy offset reduces the voltage of the solar cell. Our work dispels this perceived tradeoff in light of the impact that wavefunction delocalization and local crystallinity have on the charge separation process. This result should help people design new molecules and optimize donor and acceptor morphologies that help increase solar cell voltage without sacrificing current.”
The team used various luminescence and electroabsorption spectroscopic techniques together with X-ray diffraction to reach their conclusion. Their results, detailed in the paper titled “Delocalization and dielectric screening of charge transfer states in organic photovoltaic cells,” will provide other groups with a better understanding of charge separation as they design and model more efficient organic solar cells.
Noel (Chris) Giebink is assistant professor of electrical engineering and a faculty member in the Materials Research Institute at Penn State. He can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Noel (Chris) Giebink | Newswise
Ultra-flat circuits will have unique properties
26.07.2016 | Rice University
Did you know that UV light helps to ensure safe bathing during the summer months?
25.07.2016 | Heraeus Noblelight GmbH
Transparent electronics devices are present in today’s thin film displays, solar cells, and touchscreens. The future will bring flexible versions of such devices. Their production requires printable materials that are transparent and remain highly conductive even when deformed. Researchers at INM – Leibniz Institute for New Materials have combined a new self-assembling nano ink with an imprint process to create flexible conductive grids with a resolution below one micrometer.
To print the grids, an ink of gold nanowires is applied to a substrate. A structured stamp is pressed on the substrate and forces the ink into a pattern. “The...
A new Fraunhofer MEVIS method conveys medical interrelationships quickly and intuitively with innovative visualization technology
On the monitor, a brain spins slowly and can be examined from every angle. Suddenly, some sections start glowing, first on the side and then the entire back of...
Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Ames Laboratory have discovered an unusual property of purple bronze that may point to new ways to achieve high temperature superconductivity.
While studying purple bronze, a molybdenum oxide, researchers discovered an unconventional charge density wave on its surface.
Munich Physicists have developed a novel electron microscope that can visualize electromagnetic fields oscillating at frequencies of billions of cycles per second.
Temporally varying electromagnetic fields are the driving force behind the whole of electronics. Their polarities can change at mind-bogglingly fast rates, and...
Breakup of continents with two speed: Continents initially stretch very slowly along the future splitting zone, but then move apart very quickly before the onset of rupture. The final speed can be up to 20 times faster than in the first, slow extension phase.phases
Present-day continents were shaped hundreds of millions of years ago as the supercontinent Pangaea broke apart. Derived from Pangaea’s main fragments Gondwana...
15.07.2016 | Event News
15.07.2016 | Event News
11.07.2016 | Event News
26.07.2016 | Information Technology
26.07.2016 | Health and Medicine
26.07.2016 | Physics and Astronomy