Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Solar power, with a side of hot running water

04.05.2011
New system for flat-panel solar power could be combined with hot water systems for greater performance.

MIT researchers and their collaborators have come up with an unusual, high performance and possibly less expensive way of turning the sun’s heat into electricity.

Their system, described in a paper published online in the journal Nature Materials on May 1, produces power with an efficiency roughly eight times higher than ever previously reported for a solar thermoelectric device — one that produces electricity from solar heat. It does so by generating and harnessing a temperature difference of about 200 degrees Celsius between the interior of the device and the ambient air.

The concept “is very radical,” says Gang Chen, MIT’s Carl Richard Soderberg Professor in Power Engineering and director of the Pappalardo Micro and Nano Engineering Laboratories, who co-authored the new paper with MIT doctoral student Daniel Kraemer and collaborators from Boston College and GMZ Energy. The work is funded by the Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion Center, an Energy Frontier Research Center at the U.S. Department of Energy.

While solar thermal electricity systems aren’t a new idea, they typically involve vast arrays of movable mirrors that track the sun and focus its rays on a small area. The new approach uses flat, stationary panels similar to traditional solar panels, eliminating the need for tracking systems.

Like the silicon photovoltaic cells that produce electricity when struck by sunlight, Chen’s system is a solid-state device with no moving parts. A thermoelectric generator, placed inside a vacuum chamber made of glass, is covered with a black plate of copper that absorbs sunlight but does not re-radiate it as heat. The other side of the generator is in contact with ambient temperatures. Placed in the sun, the entire unit heats up quickly, even without facing the sun directly.

The device requires much less material than conventional photovoltaic panels, and could therefore be much less expensive to produce. It can also be integrated into solar hot water systems, allowing the expenses of the structure and installation to serve two functions at once. Such solar water heaters are rarely seen in the United States, but are already a highly successful mass-market product in China and Europe, where they provide households with hot water and in some cases space heating as well.

The materials used to build such solar thermoelectric generators, made through a nanostructured process, were developed jointly a few years ago in Chen’s lab at MIT and in co-author Zhifeng Ren’s lab at Boston College. Their teams have continued to work on improving these materials and integrating them into complete systems.

Chen points out that the U.S. Department of Energy has programs to develop thermoelectric systems, mostly geared toward harnessing waste heat from car and truck engines. He says that solar applications for such devices also can “have an important role to play” in reducing carbon emissions. “Hopefully we can prove that,” he adds.

Li Shi, associate professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Texas at Austin, says this approach to solar power is “very novel, simple, and easy for low-cost implementation.” The efficiency level they have demonstrated so far, at 4.6 percent, is “already quite impressive,” he says.

“With the use of other or new thermoelectric materials that can operate at a higher temperature,” Shi adds, “the efficiency may be improved further to be competitive with that for state-of-the-art amorphous silicon solar cells. This can potentially provide a different approach to realizing the $1-per-watt goal for solar-electricity conversion.”

The new system wouldn’t be a substitute for solar photovoltaics, Chen says, but offers “another way” of tapping into the enormous amount of solar energy that bathes the Earth every day. And because it can be piggybacked onto the existing solar hot-water industry, the thermoelectric device could be a relatively inexpensive addition, with “no subsidies required,” Chen suggests. “It can be a game-changing thing,” he says.

Caroline McCall | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.mit.edu

More articles from Power and Electrical Engineering:

nachricht Researchers use light to remotely control curvature of plastics
23.03.2017 | North Carolina State University

nachricht TU Graz researchers show that enzyme function inhibits battery ageing
21.03.2017 | Technische Universität Graz

All articles from Power and Electrical Engineering >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

Im Focus: Researchers Imitate Molecular Crowding in Cells

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Argon is not the 'dope' for metallic hydrogen

24.03.2017 | Materials Sciences

Astronomers find unexpected, dust-obscured star formation in distant galaxy

24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Gravitational wave kicks monster black hole out of galactic core

24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>