Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

The search for new materials for hydrogen storage

20.09.2012
Hydrogen is the ideal fuel for new types of fuel cell vehicles, but one problem is how to store hydrogen. In his doctoral dissertation Serhiy Luzan studies new types of materials for hydrogen storage. He also shows that new materials with interesting properties can be synthesized by the reaction of hydrogen with carbon nano-structured materials. The dissertation will be publicly defended on September 28 at Umeå University.

New car engines that run on hydrogen produce only water as exhaust and are three to four times more efficient than ordinary internal combustion engines. Just one “small” problem is hampering the development of hydrogen-powered vehicles: there is no good method for storing sufficient amounts of hydrogen, as it is a gas of very low density.


Caption: Four types of materials studied in the dissertation: fullerene C60, carbon nanotubes, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), and fullerene C60 encapsulated inside carbon nanotubes.

Serhiy Luzan devotes the first part of his dissertation to studies of hydrogen storage in exciting new types of materials: metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). They consist of zinc- and cobalt-based metal clusters linked together via organic linkers, and they are extremely porous. One gram of MOF has a hydrogen-absorbing surface that is larger than a football field! Dozens of new MOF materials are synthesized each year, which is highly promising for the next generation of hydrogen storage materials.

Serhiy studied the hydrogen absorption of several new MOFs and researched the effects of different surface areas, pore volumes, and pore forms on the hydrogen storage parameters. MOFs can store record amounts of hydrogen at very low temperatures, but the hydrogen capacity at room temperature is not good enough. Luzan therefore studied new methods to enhance this capacity. Addition of metal catalysts has previously been reported to improve hydrogen storage considerably.

“But in my study, the effect of metal catalysts addition on hydrogen absorption in MOFs was not confirmed,” says Serhihy Luzan.

Hydrogen is of interest not only as a fuel but also for chemical modification of nano-structured carbon materials, such as carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, and graphene. Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms. Carbon nanotubes also consist of pure carbon, in the form of graphene layers rolled into a cylinder. Fullerene, C60, consist of sixty carbon atoms arranged in five- or six-vertices figures, just like the pattern on a soccer ball. There are carbon materials that are stronger than steel, conduct current better than copper, and diffuse heat better than diamond.

In the second part of the dissertation Luzan describes the materials he created by the reaction of hydrogen with fullerenes and carbon nanotubes.

Luzan studied the reaction between fullerene C60 and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and hydrogen pressures, with and without the addition of metal catalysts. The reaction resulted in the formation of hydrogenated fullerenes, C60Hx. Upon extended hydrogen treatment, the fullerene structure fragmented and collapsed. This outcome shows that it is possible to break down fullerenes stepwise into smaller cup-like molecules, which are stabilized by hydrogen atoms. This is a structure that was previously difficult to achieve.

“With this method, we should be able to use fullerenes as a relatively inexpensive source material for creating new molecules that hopefully would retain interesting properties from the original carbon nano-material,” says Serhihy Luzan.

Hydrogenated graphene (graphane) is expected to be an ideal material for new carbon-based electronics, but graphane is difficult to synthesize by a direct reaction between graphene and hydrogen. It is much easier first to hydrogenate carbon nanotubes and then to cut them along the tube axis into so-called nanoribbons, which have hydrogen covalently bonded to the surface.

Luzan’s experiments showed that the reaction between single-wall carbon nanotubes and hydrogen is possible if a suitable catalyst is used, and he was able to observe that some of the nanotubes were converted to graphene or graphane nanoribbons.

About the public defense:
On Friday, September 28, Serhiy Luzan, Department of Physics, will defend his thesis titled: Materials for hydrogen storage and synthesis of new materials by hydrogenation. Title in Swedish: Material för vätelagring och syntes av nya material genom hydrering.
The public defense will take place at 1:00, p.m. in room N300.
The external examiner is Prof. Dr. Yaroslav Filinchuk, Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences, Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.
Read the whole or parts of the dissertation at:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-58663
For further information, please contact:
Serhiy Luzan, Department of Physics (in English)
Phone: +46 (0)90-786 65 81; mobile: +46 (0)70-022 34 94
E-mail: serhiy.luzan@physics.umu.se

Ingrid Söderbergh | idw
Further information:
http://www.vr.se
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-58663

More articles from Power and Electrical Engineering:

nachricht Researchers pave the way for ionotronic nanodevices
23.02.2017 | Aalto University

nachricht Microhotplates for a smart gas sensor
22.02.2017 | Toyohashi University of Technology

All articles from Power and Electrical Engineering >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Stingless bees have their nests protected by soldiers

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

New risk factors for anxiety disorders

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

MWC 2017: 5G Capital Berlin

24.02.2017 | Trade Fair News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>