Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Navigating obstacles to fueling the future

06.11.2014

A long-lived catalyst facilitates the first steps toward a viable small-scale on-board hydrogen generator

A*STAR researchers are helping to advance the development of hydrogen-powered cars by producing innovative materials that could make on-board hydrogen generators a reality(1). Hydrogen is a renewable resource with the potential to power everything from households to cars, but its use is currently limited by a lack of green and practical production methods.


An iron-promoted rhodium-based catalyst is a key step forward for the realization of small-scale on-board reformers to convert biomass into hydrogen fuel for powering vehicles.

© Ryan McVay/Photodisc/Thinkstock

Current approaches to generating hydrogen as a power source are anything but environmentally friendly. Obtaining hydrogen through steam reforming and electrolysis of water — the splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen by applying an electric current — requires high energy input and fossil fuels. In contrast, the process of ethanol steam reforming (ESR) uses ethanol derived from renewable biomass to produce hydrogen and other products.

One drawback of ESR, however, is that it requires high reaction temperatures to proceed and therefore a catalyst is needed to spur on the reaction. Another downside of ESR is that it often produces carbon monoxide as a byproduct, which is toxic and can also lead to poisoning of hydrogen fuel cells.

Luwei Chen, Armando Borgna and colleagues at the A*STAR Institute of Chemical and Engineering Sciences have developed an iron-promoted rhodium-based catalyst on a calcium-modified aluminum oxide support for ESR. This catalyst enables hydrogen to be generated more efficiently with less environmental damage as the reaction can occur at temperatures as low as 350 degrees Celsius and produce almost no carbon monoxide as a byproduct.

The presence of iron oxide enables carbon monoxide to be converted into carbon dioxide and hydrogen via a reaction known as the water–gas shift reaction. Thus, the iron promotion effect on the rhodium-based catalyst is the key to removing carbon monoxide — something that is exceedingly difficult to achieve on rhodium alone.

Additional benefits of ESR are the commercial advantages stemming from the catalyst being quite stable and having a long active lifetime. This means that the catalyst will permit long cycle lengths, minimize the regeneration frequency and reduce the operational downtime for on-board steam reformers. Chen explains that these factors are “essential for maintaining profitable operations in reforming units. Similarly, a stable catalyst would reduce the operating cost for an on-board reformer.”

Chen notes that the catalyst will enable “better operational flexibility in terms of economics and on-board reformer size (since carbon monoxide purification units can be removed),” which she says will “make a significant impact in the design of efficient and simple on-board reactors.” Hence, this research is promising for advancing the realization of small-scale on-board reformers for hydrogen-powered cars.

Reference
Choong, C. K. S., Chen, L., Du, Y., Wang, Z., Hong, L. & Borgna, A. Rh–Fe/Ca–Al2O3: A unique catalyst for CO-free hydrogen production in low temperature ethanol steam reforming. Topics in Catalysis 57, 627–636 (2014).


Associated links
A*STAR article

A*STAR Research | ResearchSEA
Further information:
http://www.researchsea.com

More articles from Power and Electrical Engineering:

nachricht Fraunhofer ISE Supports Market Development of Solar Thermal Power Plants in the MENA Region
21.02.2018 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Solare Energiesysteme ISE

nachricht New tech for commercial Lithium-ion batteries finds they can be charged 5 times fast
20.02.2018 | University of Warwick

All articles from Power and Electrical Engineering >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Attoseconds break into atomic interior

A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. This has made it possible to observe the interaction of multiple photons in a single such pulse with electrons in the inner orbital shell of an atom.

In order to observe the ultrafast electron motion in the inner shells of atoms with short light pulses, the pulses must not only be ultrashort, but very...

Im Focus: Good vibrations feel the force

A group of researchers led by Andrea Cavalleri at the Max Planck Institute for Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) in Hamburg has demonstrated a new method enabling precise measurements of the interatomic forces that hold crystalline solids together. The paper Probing the Interatomic Potential of Solids by Strong-Field Nonlinear Phononics, published online in Nature, explains how a terahertz-frequency laser pulse can drive very large deformations of the crystal.

By measuring the highly unusual atomic trajectories under extreme electromagnetic transients, the MPSD group could reconstruct how rigid the atomic bonds are...

Im Focus: Developing reliable quantum computers

International research team makes important step on the path to solving certification problems

Quantum computers may one day solve algorithmic problems which even the biggest supercomputers today can’t manage. But how do you test a quantum computer to...

Im Focus: In best circles: First integrated circuit from self-assembled polymer

For the first time, a team of researchers at the Max-Planck Institute (MPI) for Polymer Research in Mainz, Germany, has succeeded in making an integrated circuit (IC) from just a monolayer of a semiconducting polymer via a bottom-up, self-assembly approach.

In the self-assembly process, the semiconducting polymer arranges itself into an ordered monolayer in a transistor. The transistors are binary switches used...

Im Focus: Demonstration of a single molecule piezoelectric effect

Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale

Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

2nd International Conference on High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys (HTSMAs)

15.02.2018 | Event News

Aachen DC Grid Summit 2018

13.02.2018 | Event News

How Global Climate Policy Can Learn from the Energy Transition

12.02.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Basque researchers turn light upside down

23.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Finnish research group discovers a new immune system regulator

23.02.2018 | Health and Medicine

Attoseconds break into atomic interior

23.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>