Thanks to a close collaboration between the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa), SR Technics and the Federal Office of Civil Aviation (FOCA), Switzerland is setting an international benchmark by developing a method for measuring emissions of fine particulate matter from aircraft engines. The Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) recently approved a preliminary standard governing the emission of particulates by aircraft engines.
Since the 1980s, large aircraft engines have been required to meet emission limits that have been gradually tightened over time.
Air traffic, therefore, contributes relatively little to Switzerland's pollution levels, and visible smoke trails in the sky from jet engines are a thing of the past. However, no-one has yet found a solution to the emission of ultra-fine particles from jet engines.
These microscopically small particles can penetrate deep into the lungs and thus adversely affect health. As a precautionary measure, these emissions from air traffic will now also be measured, regulated and reduced, even though air traffic produces less than 1 percent of Switzerland's fine particulate emissions.
From a technical standpoint, measuring ultra-fine combustion particles is extremely complex. As part of a close collaboration between Empa, SR Technics and FOCA experts have spent years developing a standard test setup and method that can be used to measure fine particulate emissions from aircraft engines.
Both the measuring system and the corresponding instruments were tested by way of international cam-paigns until they were considered ready for deployment. The measuring system gives the mass of the particulate matter as well as the number of particles emitted per liter of fuel. It even captures the smallest particles with diameters of less than a hundred-thousandth of a millimeter.
The work on this new global standard was led by FOCA in partnership with the US aviation authority. On 2 February in Montreal, the ICAO's Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection approved the new standard, which relies heavily on contributions by FOCA, SR Technics and Empa. Final approval of the standard is expected by the ICAO Council in one year.
All engine types for passenger aircraft that are in production as of 1 January 2020 must be certified in accordance with the new standard. Most engine manufacturers have already developed their own measuring systems that comply with the standard and have started re-measuring their engines. Technologies are also emerging that will further reduce the emission of fine particulates.
Cornelia Zogg | Empa - Eidgenössische Materialprüfungs- und Forschungsanstalt
Multiregional brain on a chip
16.01.2017 | Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Researchers develop environmentally friendly soy air filter
16.01.2017 | Washington State University
Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.
As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...
At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).
Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...
Many pathogens use certain sugar compounds from their host to help conceal themselves against the immune system. Scientists at the University of Bonn have now, in cooperation with researchers at the University of York in the United Kingdom, analyzed the dynamics of a bacterial molecule that is involved in this process. They demonstrate that the protein grabs onto the sugar molecule with a Pac Man-like chewing motion and holds it until it can be used. Their results could help design therapeutics that could make the protein poorer at grabbing and holding and hence compromise the pathogen in the host. The study has now been published in “Biophysical Journal”.
The cells of the mouth, nose and intestinal mucosa produce large quantities of a chemical called sialic acid. Many bacteria possess a special transport system...
UMD, NOAA collaboration demonstrates suitability of in-orbit datasets for weather satellite calibration
"Traffic and weather, together on the hour!" blasts your local radio station, while your smartphone knows the weather halfway across the world. A network of...
Fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) are frequently used in the aeronautic and automobile industry. However, the repair of workpieces made of these composite materials is often less profitable than exchanging the part. In order to increase the lifetime of FRP parts and to make them more eco-efficient, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) and the Apodius GmbH want to combine a new measuring device for fiber layer orientation with an innovative laser-based repair process.
Defects in FRP pieces may be production or operation-related. Whether or not repair is cost-effective depends on the geometry of the defective area, the tools...
10.01.2017 | Event News
09.01.2017 | Event News
05.01.2017 | Event News
16.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering
16.01.2017 | Information Technology
16.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering