Thanks to a close collaboration between the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa), SR Technics and the Federal Office of Civil Aviation (FOCA), Switzerland is setting an international benchmark by developing a method for measuring emissions of fine particulate matter from aircraft engines. The Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) recently approved a preliminary standard governing the emission of particulates by aircraft engines.
Since the 1980s, large aircraft engines have been required to meet emission limits that have been gradually tightened over time.
Air traffic, therefore, contributes relatively little to Switzerland's pollution levels, and visible smoke trails in the sky from jet engines are a thing of the past. However, no-one has yet found a solution to the emission of ultra-fine particles from jet engines.
These microscopically small particles can penetrate deep into the lungs and thus adversely affect health. As a precautionary measure, these emissions from air traffic will now also be measured, regulated and reduced, even though air traffic produces less than 1 percent of Switzerland's fine particulate emissions.
From a technical standpoint, measuring ultra-fine combustion particles is extremely complex. As part of a close collaboration between Empa, SR Technics and FOCA experts have spent years developing a standard test setup and method that can be used to measure fine particulate emissions from aircraft engines.
Both the measuring system and the corresponding instruments were tested by way of international cam-paigns until they were considered ready for deployment. The measuring system gives the mass of the particulate matter as well as the number of particles emitted per liter of fuel. It even captures the smallest particles with diameters of less than a hundred-thousandth of a millimeter.
The work on this new global standard was led by FOCA in partnership with the US aviation authority. On 2 February in Montreal, the ICAO's Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection approved the new standard, which relies heavily on contributions by FOCA, SR Technics and Empa. Final approval of the standard is expected by the ICAO Council in one year.
All engine types for passenger aircraft that are in production as of 1 January 2020 must be certified in accordance with the new standard. Most engine manufacturers have already developed their own measuring systems that comply with the standard and have started re-measuring their engines. Technologies are also emerging that will further reduce the emission of fine particulates.
Cornelia Zogg | Empa - Eidgenössische Materialprüfungs- und Forschungsanstalt
Linear potentiometer LRW2/3 - Maximum precision with many measuring points
17.05.2017 | WayCon Positionsmesstechnik GmbH
First flat lens for immersion microscope provides alternative to centuries-old technique
17.05.2017 | Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that colonizes by far more than half of the skin and the mucosa of adults, usually without causing infections....
Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.
The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....
An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.
We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...
Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.
Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...
An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...
24.05.2017 | Event News
23.05.2017 | Event News
22.05.2017 | Event News
26.05.2017 | Life Sciences
26.05.2017 | Life Sciences
26.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy