Researchers with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have created a graphene and tin nanoscale composite material for high-capacity energy storage in renewable lithium ion batteries. By encapsulating tin between sheets of graphene, the researchers constructed a new, lightweight “sandwich” structure that should bolster battery performance.
“For an electric vehicle, you need a lightweight battery that can be charged quickly and holds its charge capacity after repeated cycling,” says Yuegang Zhang, a staff scientist with Berkeley Lab’s Molecular Foundry, in the Inorganic Nanostructures Facility, who led this research. “Here, we’ve shown the rational design of a nanoscale architecture, which doesn’t need an additive or binder to operate, to improve battery performance.”
Graphene is a single-atom-thick, “chicken-wire” lattice of carbon atoms with stellar electronic and mechanical properties, far beyond silicon and other traditional semiconductor materials. Previous work on graphene by Zhang and his colleagues has emphasized electronic device applications.
In this study, the team assembled alternating layers of graphene and tin to create a nanoscale composite. To create the composite material, a thin film of tin is deposited onto graphene. Next, another sheet of graphene is transferred on top of the tin film. This process is repeated to create a composite material, which is then heated to 300˚ Celsius (572˚ Fahrenheit) in a hydrogen and argon environment. During this heat treatment, the tin film transforms into a series of pillars, increasing the height of the tin layer.
“The formation of these tin nanopillars from a thin film is very particular to this system, and we find the distance between the top and bottom graphene layers also changes to accommodate the height change of the tin layer,” says Liwen Ji, a post-doctoral researcher at the Foundry. Ji is the lead author and Zhang the corresponding author of a paper reporting the research in the journal Energy and Environmental Science.
The change in height between the graphene layers in these new nanocomposites helps during electrochemical cycling of the battery, as the volume change of tin improves the electrode’s performance. In addition, this accommodating behavior means the battery can be charged quickly and repeatedly without degrading — crucial for rechargeable batteries in electric vehicles.
“We have a large battery program here at Berkeley Lab, where we are capable of making highly cyclable cells. Through our interactions in the Carbon Cycle 2.0 program, the Materials Science Division researchers benefit from quality battery facilities and personnel, along with our insights in what it takes to make a better electrode,” says co-author Battaglia, program manager in the Advanced Energy Technology department of Berkeley Lab’s Environmental and Energy Technologies Division. “In return, we have an outlet for getting these requirements out to scientists developing the next generation of materials.”Molecular Foundry staff scientist Yuegang Zhang, Energy and Environmental Technologies Division program manager Vincent Battaglia, and their colleagues have created a graphene-based nanocomposite for high capacity energy storage in renewable lithium ion batteries.
“Multilayer nanoassembly of Sn-nanopillar arrays sandwiched between graphene layers for high-capacity lithium storage,” by Liwen Ji, Zhongkui Tan, Tevye Kuykendall, Eun Ji An, Yanbao Fu, Vincent Battaglia, and Yuegang Zhang, appears in Energy and Environmental Science and is available online at http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2011/EE/C1EE01592C. Portions of this work at the Molecular Foundry were supported by DOE’s Office of Science.
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addresses the world’s most urgent scientific challenges by advancing sustainable energy, protecting human health, creating new materials, and revealing the origin and fate of the universe. Founded in 1931, Berkeley Lab’s scientific expertise has been recognized with 12 Nobel prizes. The University of California manages Berkeley Lab for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science. For more, visit www.lbl.gov.
The Molecular Foundry is one of the five DOE Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs), national user facilities for interdisciplinary research at the nanoscale, supported by the DOE Office of Science. Together the NSRCs comprise a suite of complementary facilities that provide researchers with state-of-the-art capabilities to fabricate, process, characterize and model nanoscale materials, and constitute the largest infrastructure investment of the National Nanotechnology Initiative. The NSRCs are located at DOE’s Argonne, Brookhaven, Lawrence Berkeley, Oak Ridge and Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories. For more information about the DOE NSRCs, please visit http://science.energy.gov. For more information about the Molecular Foundry visit http://foundry.lbl.gov/.
Information on Zhang’s previous work with graphene for nanoscale electronic devices may be found at (http://newscenter.lbl.gov/news-releases/2010/08/06/noise-in-graphene/) and (http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2010/10/15/the-noise-about-graphene/).
Aditi Risbud | EurekAlert!
Did you know that the wrapping of Easter eggs benefits from specialty light sources?
13.04.2017 | Heraeus Noblelight GmbH
To e-, or not to e-, the question for the exotic 'Si-III' phase of silicon
05.04.2017 | Carnegie Institution for Science
More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.
Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...
Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.
"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...
The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.
Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...
The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...
Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
20.04.2017 | Event News
18.04.2017 | Event News
03.04.2017 | Event News
26.04.2017 | Materials Sciences
26.04.2017 | Agricultural and Forestry Science
26.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy