Existing technologies for hard, brackish and sea water desalination are highly energy consuming even in the case of the best available technology nowadays, Reverse Osmosis. In addition to this problem, the construction of desalination plants requires intensive capital expenditures.
Capacitive Deionization is a technological alternative to Reverse Osmosis provided it is a non-membrane and low-pressure process, which are possibly the two main drawbacks of the Reverse Osmosis technology. The Capacitive Deionization concept is schematically represented in the Figure.
During the deionization cycle, an external electrical charge is applied on a pair of electrodes introduced in the feed water, this makes the ions dissolved in the water to migrate towards the electrode of opposite charge, where they are adsorbed. In the regeneration cycle, the electrical load of the electrodes is switched off, therefore adsorbed ions are released. If an electrical circuit is connected at this stage, an electrical current will be produced, just like in the discharge of a capacitor.
Early studies almost 40 years ago showed that Capacitive Deionization could be a feasible technology for low-cost water desalination, but by that time appropriate materials were not available yet. However, nowadays with the most recent advances in electrochemical capacitors, there are improved electrodes with performances good enough to bring the Capacitive Deionization systems from research laboratories to real life applications.
With this aim the company PROINGESA and the foundations IMDEA Energy and IMDEA Water have launched a research project to design a low-cost Capacitive Deionization device based on nanomaterials that have been developed for last generation electrochemical capacitors. This project is funded by the Spanish Ministry of Industry Tourism and Commerce with the Strategic Action on Energy and Climate Change of the National Plan of Research, Development and Innovation.
IMDEA | alfa
Engineers program tiny robots to move, think like insects
15.12.2017 | Cornell University
Electromagnetic water cloak eliminates drag and wake
12.12.2017 | Duke University
DNA molecules that follow specific instructions could offer more precise molecular control of synthetic chemical systems, a discovery that opens the door for engineers to create molecular machines with new and complex behaviors.
Researchers have created chemical amplifiers and a chemical oscillator using a systematic method that has the potential to embed sophisticated circuit...
MPQ scientists achieve long storage times for photonic quantum bits which break the lower bound for direct teleportation in a global quantum network.
Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor...
Researchers have developed a water cloaking concept based on electromagnetic forces that could eliminate an object's wake, greatly reducing its drag while...
Tiny pores at a cell's entryway act as miniature bouncers, letting in some electrically charged atoms--ions--but blocking others. Operating as exquisitely sensitive filters, these "ion channels" play a critical role in biological functions such as muscle contraction and the firing of brain cells.
To rapidly transport the right ions through the cell membrane, the tiny channels rely on a complex interplay between the ions and surrounding molecules,...
The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecule’s storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters.
Over the past few years, the building blocks of storage media have gotten ever smaller. But further miniaturization of the current technology is hindered by...
11.12.2017 | Event News
08.12.2017 | Event News
07.12.2017 | Event News
15.12.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering
15.12.2017 | Materials Sciences
15.12.2017 | Life Sciences