Existing technologies for hard, brackish and sea water desalination are highly energy consuming even in the case of the best available technology nowadays, Reverse Osmosis. In addition to this problem, the construction of desalination plants requires intensive capital expenditures.
Capacitive Deionization is a technological alternative to Reverse Osmosis provided it is a non-membrane and low-pressure process, which are possibly the two main drawbacks of the Reverse Osmosis technology. The Capacitive Deionization concept is schematically represented in the Figure.
During the deionization cycle, an external electrical charge is applied on a pair of electrodes introduced in the feed water, this makes the ions dissolved in the water to migrate towards the electrode of opposite charge, where they are adsorbed. In the regeneration cycle, the electrical load of the electrodes is switched off, therefore adsorbed ions are released. If an electrical circuit is connected at this stage, an electrical current will be produced, just like in the discharge of a capacitor.
Early studies almost 40 years ago showed that Capacitive Deionization could be a feasible technology for low-cost water desalination, but by that time appropriate materials were not available yet. However, nowadays with the most recent advances in electrochemical capacitors, there are improved electrodes with performances good enough to bring the Capacitive Deionization systems from research laboratories to real life applications.
With this aim the company PROINGESA and the foundations IMDEA Energy and IMDEA Water have launched a research project to design a low-cost Capacitive Deionization device based on nanomaterials that have been developed for last generation electrochemical capacitors. This project is funded by the Spanish Ministry of Industry Tourism and Commerce with the Strategic Action on Energy and Climate Change of the National Plan of Research, Development and Innovation.
IMDEA | alfa
TU Graz researchers show that enzyme function inhibits battery ageing
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Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...
Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
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In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...
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