Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Creative heat-pump design heats and cools simultaneously

09.03.2017

As one of the leading R&D partners in the area of thin-film technologies, the Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP has teamed with Johnson Controls Systems & Service GmbH to co-develop and install an especially efficient heat pump for its R&D facility.

The Fraunhofer FEP works on innovative solutions in the area of vacuum coating, surface treatment, and organic semiconductors. The foundation for this work is its core expertise in electron beam technology, sputtering, plasma-enhanced high-rate vapor deposition and high-rate plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), as well as technologies for organic electronics and IC system design.


Technical center building of Fraunhofer FEP with efficient heat pump concept

© Fraunhofer FEP, Photographer: Jürgen Lösel


Section on heat-pump operation from the building engineering documentation

© Fraunhofer FEP

Johnson Controls is a leading supplier of products and services in the area of heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, refrigeration, industrial refrigeration, building automation as well as security and fire protection. It has been serving as an equipment supplier to Fraunhofer FEP for Instrumentation, Control, and Automation (ICA) as well as for Building Management Systems through its branch office in Dresden since 1997.

As a result of the fields in which Fraunhofer FEP works, the experimental facilities require a very complex supply of water maintained at a constant temperature level of about 25°C. The cooling water warmed to about 28°C by the experimental facilities returns to an accumulator tank and from there re-enters the experimental facility after being cooled in a cooling tower. The current system handles 500 kilowatts during simultaneous operation of the present experiments.

The R&D facilities of Fraunhofer FEP are almost entirely located in the large engineering buildings. Temperature regulation in these buildings is controlled by means of centralized ventilation and air-conditioning (VAC). Local heating that has been converted from the district heating network is available as a thermal source for this purpose. The maximum thermal output from this VAC equipment is around 400 kilowatts.

Fraunhofer FEP is continuously searching for innovative technological solutions. Thanks to the technical knowledge in the Institute about the simultaneous amounts of waste heat and thermal input energy required, engineers had the innovative idea of developing a heat pump application that coupled these two elements in a beneficial way. Fraunhofer FEP and Johnson Controls had already jointly implemented a heat pump in a similar case for using waste heat (15 kW) from an IT server room to provide heating for the office building.

The “waste product” of the heat pump process – the resultant lower temperature – is used for active cooling of the server room. This application was technologically and economically so successful that the next larger step was appropriate. The economic success was substantiated by the complete return on investment (ROI) in less than three years. Heat-pump applications usually achieve an energy efficiency ratio of about 4.5. However, the facility as designed exhibits an even higher energy efficiency ratio of around 7.5. This performance coefficient represents the ratio of thermal energy recovered to electrical energy expended.

The region of the performance envelope guarantying the highest possible number of hours at full capacity utilization versus the expanded scale of the new heat pump had to be determined. As a result of the various measurements, the heat pump was specified as follows: Heating capability 115 kilowatts, cooling capability 90 kilowatts.

There was no standard solution that could be drawn upon for this project. Johnson Controls, as supplier of the heat pump, installed a system configured from two compressors (each handling 50% of the work), one of which was designed to be infinitely adjustable and the other fixed.

The hot side of the heat pumps were connected to the ventilation/air conditioning feed circuit. Adaptation of the control and hydraulics was difficult, but was solved. Due to the way the Institute operates, sole supply to the VAC circuit would have led to shutdown of the heat pump at night and on the weekend. So an additional sink was found in the static thermal circuit (max. dissipation 50 kW), to take over part of the load, though smaller. Adding to this was the fact that the heat developed in the experimental facilities is very restricted on the weekend anyway.

Complete terms of reference – whether for regular operations of the Institute or during unusual conditions due to the demands of building alterations or extensions – were worked out cooperatively with Johnson Controls (Dresden office) in a spirit of partnership. It was clear to the project participants that this demanding project could only be carried out successfully in this way, and that adjustments are unavoidable even after successful commissioning.

Gerd Obenaus, head of Technical Management at Fraunhofer FEP, explains the necessary conditions for good outcome of the demanding project: “All of the project participants need understand that considerable expenditures are to be expected for commissioning and subsequently optimizing the equipment. In addition, the site operator must be very familiar with its facilities as well as the behavior of the periphery and proper operation of the equipment. The capability and determination of the operator to carry out operating improvements on its own are urgently needed and essential for success.”

Frank Rostalsky, head of the ICA service team for the Dresden office, describes the demands they faced: “We were expected to adapt to the policies and approach at the site and provide the operator with viable options. To do this, it was necessary to disclose all the variables of the equipment and permit optimizations.”

Weak points in the hydraulics and control of other equipment – that was now to be fed by the heat pump – were also identified and corrected during the comprehensive commissioning.

On-line operation of the equipment began in November 2016. A lot of additional measurement and control equipment was installed beyond the normal complement. This is meant to ensure and document smooth and economic operation of the facilities. First results with regard to operational experience and efficiency will be calculated in summer 2017. The engineers of the Fraunhofer FEP are ready to provide their know-how in designing environmentally friendly facilities for external clients as well.

Fraunhofer FEP and Johnson Controls are planning to enter their completed heat-pump solution in the competition for the German Innovation Prize – Climate and Environment (IKU). The German Federal Environment Ministry (Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz, Bau und Reaktorsicherheit) together with the Federation of German Industries (Bundesverband der Deutschen Industrie/BDI) award the German Innovation Prize for Climate and Environment (IUK) every other year to pioneering ideas in the field of climate and environmental protection.

Weitere Informationen:

http://s.fhg.de/kTP

Annett Arnold | Fraunhofer-Institut für Organische Elektronik, Elektronenstrahl- und Plasmatechnik FEP
Further information:
http://www.fep.fraunhofer.de/

Further reports about: Elektronik FEP Plasmatechnik energy efficiency pump ventilation waste heat

More articles from Power and Electrical Engineering:

nachricht In best circles: First integrated circuit from self-assembled polymer
19.02.2018 | Max-Planck-Institut für Polymerforschung

nachricht System draws power from daily temperature swings
16.02.2018 | Massachusetts Institute of Technology

All articles from Power and Electrical Engineering >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: In best circles: First integrated circuit from self-assembled polymer

For the first time, a team of researchers at the Max-Planck Institute (MPI) for Polymer Research in Mainz, Germany, has succeeded in making an integrated circuit (IC) from just a monolayer of a semiconducting polymer via a bottom-up, self-assembly approach.

In the self-assembly process, the semiconducting polymer arranges itself into an ordered monolayer in a transistor. The transistors are binary switches used...

Im Focus: Demonstration of a single molecule piezoelectric effect

Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale

Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...

Im Focus: Hybrid optics bring color imaging using ultrathin metalenses into focus

For photographers and scientists, lenses are lifesavers. They reflect and refract light, making possible the imaging systems that drive discovery through the microscope and preserve history through cameras.

But today's glass-based lenses are bulky and resist miniaturization. Next-generation technologies, such as ultrathin cameras or tiny microscopes, require...

Im Focus: Stem cell divisions in the adult brain seen for the first time

Scientists from the University of Zurich have succeeded for the first time in tracking individual stem cells and their neuronal progeny over months within the intact adult brain. This study sheds light on how new neurons are produced throughout life.

The generation of new nerve cells was once thought to taper off at the end of embryonic development. However, recent research has shown that the adult brain...

Im Focus: Interference as a new method for cooling quantum devices

Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. Study published in Physical Review Letters

Quantum computer parts are sensitive and need to be cooled to very low temperatures. Their tiny size makes them particularly susceptible to a temperature...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

2nd International Conference on High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys (HTSMAs)

15.02.2018 | Event News

Aachen DC Grid Summit 2018

13.02.2018 | Event News

How Global Climate Policy Can Learn from the Energy Transition

12.02.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Contacting the molecular world through graphene nanoribbons

19.02.2018 | Materials Sciences

When Proteins Shake Hands

19.02.2018 | Materials Sciences

Cells communicate in a dynamic code

19.02.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>