"Microfinance Meets the Market," just published in the Journal of Economic Perspectives, advances the debate, presenting new research from Jonathan Morduch of the Financial Access Initiative, housed at New York University's Wagner Graduate School of Public Service, and Robert Cull and Asli Demirgüç-Kunt of the World Bank. The research reveals complementary paths to a successful expansion of the microfinance industry.
"Arguing for a purely nonprofit or commercial approach to global microfinance services misses the point and limits the opportunities to reach a significantly broader population," commented Professor Morduch. "We shouldn't be choosing sides. By embracing both NGO and commercial options we can leverage innovation to drive down costs and expand access."
Roughly 40-to-80 percent of the populations in most developing economies lack access to formal banking services. There is general agreement that access to reliable financial services could improve the lives of hundreds of millions, perhaps billions, of low-income people currently without access to banks.
In examining 346 of the world's leading microfinance organizations covering 18 million borrowers, the research presented in "Microfinance Meets the Market" reveals that while commercialization is a powerful trend, commercial banks such as Mexico's Compartamos and avowedly "social businesses" like Grameen Bank are not substitutes for each other. Each has benefits and limitations.
Commercial microfinance banks, as a group, make loans that on average are about four times larger than loans from non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Since poorer customers generally demand smaller loans, average loan size is a rough proxy for the poverty level of customers. Microfinance banks tend to serve a substantially better-off group of borrowers than do NGOs, and banks also serve fewer women as a share of their customers.
While many NGOs do in fact earn profits from their microfinance activities, investors seeking only financial returns would have little interest in most of the institutions serving poorer customers. Commercial investment is necessary to fund the continued expansion of microfinance, but institutions with strong social missions, many taking advantage of subsidies, remain best placed to reach and serve the poorest customers and some are doing so at massive scale. The paper shows that social investors, foundations, and public agencies remain an important part of the microfinance equation.
About the Financial Access Initiative:
The Financial Access Initiative (FAI) is a consortium of leading development economists focused on substantially expanding access to quality financial services for low-income individuals, offering the next generation of thinking about microfinance. FAI is housed at the Wagner Graduate School of Public Service at New York University and led by managing director Jonathan Morduch and directors Dean Karlan (Yale University) and Sendhil Mullainathan (Harvard University). FAI focuses on basic research and measurement tools that reveal the most effective means of implementing microfinance initiatives. FAI studies the value of microfinance by identifying the demand for financial services; the impact of financial access on incomes, businesses, and broader aspects of well-being; and mechanisms that can increase impact and scale of microfinance.
How Strong Brands Translate into Money
15.11.2016 | Kühne Logistics University - Wissenschaftliche Hochschule für Logistik und Unternehmensführung
Demographic change depresses tax revenues
04.11.2016 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Informationstechnik FIT
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water
In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...
The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.
Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
02.12.2016 | Medical Engineering
02.12.2016 | Agricultural and Forestry Science
02.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy