The report, "Skills At Work, 1986 to 2006", written by Professor Alan Felstead (Cardiff University), Professor Duncan Gallie and Dr. Ying Zhou (Oxford University) and Professor Francis Green (Kent University), gives the first findings from the 2006 Skills Survey, a nationally representative survey of 4,800 working individuals in Britain aged 20-65, and similar surveys carried out over the last two decades. The surveys collected a wealth of information about the skills utilised at work, and about workers’ views on training and work, and about their pay and well-being.
- Since 1986, there has been a fall in the proportion of jobs requiring no qualifications for entry, from 38 per cent in 1986 to 28 per cent in 2006. There has also been a fall since 1986 in the proportion of jobs requiring less than one month to learn to do well, from 27 per cent in 1986 to 19 per cent in 2006. However, both these indicators of low-skill jobs have remained unchanged over the last five years.
- Computing skills continue to become increasingly important in workplaces. In 2006 computers were essential to nearly half of all jobs compared with less than a third of jobs in 1997.
- Though computers are essential for a greater proportion of women’s jobs than men’s jobs (50 per cent compared with 45 per cent), a smaller proportion of women’s jobs than men’s jobs require the use of computers at complex or advanced levels (21 per cent compared with 35 per cent). Among women’s part-time jobs, the proportion of jobs using computers in complex or advanced ways is very much less (15 per cent).
- “Influence skills” – the abilities to persuade people, write long reports, make speeches, and to teach people – are also becoming more important.
- There has been a convergence between the skills of men’s and women’s jobs. The proportion of jobs requiring degrees for entry rose between 1986 and 2006 from 14 per cent to 21 per cent among men, but from 6 per cent to 18 per cent among women. In most skill domains part-time jobs have been narrowing the skills gap with full-time jobs.
- Jobs which require the use of ‘influence skills’ pay a premium over and above the rewards to education and training. Comparing otherwise similar jobs for which influence skills are on average ‘essential’ with jobs where the skills are ‘very important’, the difference in hourly pay amounts to an estimated 7 per cent for females and 8 per cent for males.
- Compared with otherwise similar jobs that do not use computers at all, those which use them in a ‘complex’ manner – for example, using statistical software packages – pay an estimated 18 per cent premium for females, 12 per cent for males.
- The workplace itself is becoming an ever more important driver for learning. The proportions strongly agreeing to the statement ‘my job requires that I keep learning new things’ has consistently moved upwards during the 1992-2006 period – rising from 26 per cent in 1992 to 30 per cent in 2001 and then to 35 per cent in 2006. The proportions strongly agreeing to the statement ‘my job requires that I help my colleagues to learn new things’ rose from 27 per cent in 2001 to 32 per cent in 2006.
- However, the rise in skills among employees over the last two decades has not been accompanied by a corresponding rise in the control they can exercise over their jobs. Between 1992 and 2001 there was a marked decline in employee task discretion for both men and women, but since 2001 employee task discretion has remained stable. For example, the proportions reporting a great deal of influence over how to do tasks at work fell from 57 per cent in 1992 to 43 per cent in 2001, where it remained in 2006.Minister for Science and Innovation, Malcolm Wicks, said:
“The Leitch Review of Skills has set out the ambition to have world class skills by 2020. The Government will shortly announce its plans for implementing Lord Leitch’s recommendations. All the evidence points to a growing need for skills for our competitiveness. Ever fewer jobs will require no qualifications in future. Employers are now in the driving seat ensuring qualifications meet their needs. Qualifications must closely reflect the skills they want. We want their involvement in the qualifications reforms under way.”
Professor Green said: “Our report shows that skills demands are continuing to rise in British workplaces, especially computing skills and influence skills. It is encouraging that there has been a narrowing of the skills gap between women and men. But there is no sign yet that British employers are affording greater discretion for workers to exercise their skills more independently."
Annika Howard | alfa
Mathematical confirmation: Rewiring financial networks reduces systemic risk
22.06.2017 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
Frugal Innovations: when less is more
19.04.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Arbeitswirtschaft und Organisation IAO
University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event
On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...
Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.
Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....
Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).
When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...
Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.
How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...
Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.
It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...
17.10.2017 | Event News
10.10.2017 | Event News
10.10.2017 | Event News
18.10.2017 | Materials Sciences
18.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
18.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy