However, this certainly does not apply to the pharmaceutical industry, as Sandra Phlippen discovered. Physical proximity between organisations plays a much smaller role than expected when it comes to gaining access to valuable external knowledge about new medicines.
On Wednesday 5 November 2008, Phlippen will be defending her dissertation Come close and co create. Proximities in pharmaceutical innovation networks, at Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
For her dissertation, Sandra Phlippen examined how different forms of proximity between organisations affect their capacity for strategic collaboration, which in recent years has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. Previously new medicines were mostly brought out by the laboratories of the large pharmaceutical companies, but their long period of hegemony is well and truly over. The lack of successful internal medicines, the expiry of patent rights from past successes, and finally the enormous expansion of alternative technology for the development of medicines have prompted pharmaceutical companies to explore opportunities for working together with external partners. As a result, innovations in the biopharmaceutical industry generally occur through partnerships between biotech companies, universities and pharmaceutical companies.
Phlippen made a distinction in her research between the effect of co-location (geographical proximity), the effect of being embedded in a network (relational proximity) and the effect of being in a common knowledge field (cognitive proximity). She discovered that the effect of geographical clustering is very limited, in spite of the many billions that are being invested in setting up business parks for companies and universities. “It is much more important for organisations to be ‘embedded’ in (often international) networks based on previous strategic partnerships. New partnership links for developing medicines are primarily the result of both organisations having a common partner with whom they have worked in the past. What matters, therefore, is not where you are, but whom you know,” explains Sandra Phlippen.
Once a collaborative partnership between two organisations has been established, it is important that there is sufficient common, that is, overlapping. knowledge between them. At the same time, the number of external partnerships cannot be too great, because knowledge about new medicines is so complex that the transfer of knowledge between two organisations requires the same researchers to work on both external and internal projects. It is only under this condition that knowledge that has been acquired externally can be successfully applied internally.
Yvette Nelen | alfa
Blockchain Set to Transform the Financial Services Market
28.09.2016 | HHL Leipzig Graduate School of Management
Paper or plastic?
08.07.2016 | University of Toronto
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.
"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...
In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.
A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...
By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.
"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...
COMPAMED has become the leading international marketplace for suppliers of medical manufacturing. The trade fair, which takes place every November and is co-located to MEDICA in Dusseldorf, has been steadily growing over the past years and shows that medical technology remains a rapidly growing market.
In 2016, the joint pavilion by the IVAM Microtechnology Network, the Product Market “High-tech for Medical Devices”, will be located in Hall 8a again and will...
'Ferroelectric' materials can switch between different states of electrical polarization in response to an external electric field. This flexibility means they show promise for many applications, for example in electronic devices and computer memory. Current ferroelectric materials are highly valued for their thermal and chemical stability and rapid electro-mechanical responses, but creating a material that is scalable down to the tiny sizes needed for technologies like silicon-based semiconductors (Si-based CMOS) has proven challenging.
Now, Hiroshi Funakubo and co-workers at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, in collaboration with researchers across Japan, have conducted experiments to...
14.10.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
12.10.2016 | Event News
21.10.2016 | Health and Medicine
21.10.2016 | Information Technology
21.10.2016 | Materials Sciences