Increased imports often mean cheaper products for EU consumers and greater opportunities for producers in other countries to export their products, but also increased competition for EU producers.
“I have compared various product groups and found that the effects of a reduction in tariffs would be different for fruit and vegetables and for cereals”, says Cecilia Hammarlund, who is behind the report Handel med hinder – effekter av tullar på EU:s jordbruksimport (Trade with obstacles – effects of tariffs on EU agricultural imports).
The study shows that an average reduction in tariffs of one per cent would lead to an increase in trade of some types of vegetables of almost ten per cent. Imports of fruit would increase by five per cent and imports of meat, milk and eggs by almost four per cent. For cereals, however, a one per cent reduction in tariffs would only marginally increase imports.
Imports of agricultural products to the EU are hindered by the tariffs. According to the calculations in the report, the tariffs are particularly high on certain products – 40 per cent on meat and meat products, 48 per cent on dairy products and 37 per cent on cereals. Fruit and vegetables have tariffs of 6–8 per cent of the import value.
The study (which covers the years 1995 to 2007) also shows that it is costly to trade agricultural products across borders. Transport is one factor, yet obstacles to trade also come in the form of consumer preferences in different countries and differences in laws and regulations.
“One overall outcome is that trade is many times greater between EU countries than across borders between an EU country and another country”, says Cecilia Hammarlund, who points out that if the WTO negotiations lead to reductions in tariffs for agricultural products, other types of trade costs could become even more important in the future.
The AgriFood Economics Centre is a collaboration between Lund University and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.For more information
The report "Handel med hinder – effekter av tullar på EU:s jordbruksimport" (Trade with obstacles – effects of tariffs on EU agricultural imports), which includes a summary in English on pages 7-10, can be downloaded from www.agrifood.se.
Megan Grindlay | idw
Mathematical confirmation: Rewiring financial networks reduces systemic risk
22.06.2017 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
Frugal Innovations: when less is more
19.04.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Arbeitswirtschaft und Organisation IAO
The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.
Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....
The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...
Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.
That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...
Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.
During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....
The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.
Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...
15.11.2017 | Event News
15.11.2017 | Event News
30.10.2017 | Event News
21.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
21.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
21.11.2017 | Life Sciences