A team of researchers, led by the University of Bristol, working alongside colleagues at the STFC Daresbury Laboratory, have gained a deeper insight into how the Earth recycles itself in the deep earth tectonic cycle way beyond the depths that can be accessed by drilling. The full paper on this research has been published (31 July) in the scientific journal, Nature.
The Earth's oceanic crust is constantly renewed in a cycle which has been occurring for billions of years. This crust is constantly being renewed from below by magma from the Earth's mantle that has been forced up at mid-ocean ridges. This crust is eventually returned to the mantle, sinking down at subduction zones that extend deep beneath the continents. Seismic imaging suggests that the oceanic crust can be subducted to depths of almost 3000km below the Earth's surface where it can remain for billions of years, during which time the crust material develops its own unique 'flavour' in comparison with the surrounding magmas. Exactly how this happens is a question that has baffled Earth scientists for years.
The Earth's oceanic crust lies under seawater for millions of years, and over time reacts with the seawater to form carbonate minerals, such as limestone, When subducted, these carbonate minerals have the effect of lowering the melting point of the crust material compared to that of the surrounding magma. It is thought that this melt is loaded with elements that carry the crustal 'flavour'.
This team of researchers have now proven this theory by looking at diamonds from the Juina area of Brazil. As the carbonate-rich magma rises through the mantle, diamonds crystallise, trapping minute quantities of minerals in the process. They form at great depths and pressures and therefore can provide clues as to what is happening at the Earth's deep interior, down to several hundred kilometres - way beyond the depths that can be physically accessed by drilling. Diamonds from the Juina area are particularly renowned for these mineral inclusions.
At the Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) at the STFC Daresbury Laboratory, the team used an intense beam of x-rays to look at the conditions of formation for the mineral perovskite which occurs in these diamonds but does not occur naturally near the Earth's surface. With a focused synchrotron X-ray beam less than half the width of a human hair, they used X-ray diffraction techniques to establish the conditions at which perovskite is stable, concluding that these mineral inclusions were formed up to 700km into the Earth in the mantle transition zone.
These results, backed up by further experiments carried out at the University of Edinburgh, the University of Bayreuth in Germany, and the Advanced Light Source in the USA, enabled the research team to show that the diamonds and their perovskite inclusions had indeed crystallised from very small-degree melts in the Earth's mantle. Upon heating, oceanic crust forms carbonatite melts, super-concentrated in trace elements with the 'flavour' of the Earth's oceanic crust. Furthermore, such melts may be widespread throughout the mantle and may have been 'flavouring' the mantle rocks for a very long time.
Dr Alistair Lennie, a research scientist at STFC Daresbury Laboratory, said: "Using X-rays to find solutions to Earth science questions is an area that has been highly active on the SRS at Daresbury Laboratory for some time. We are very excited that the SRS has contributed to answering such long standing questions about the Earth in this way."
Dr. Michael Walter, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, said: "The resources available at Daresbury's SRS for high-pressure research have been crucial in helping us determine the origin of these diamonds and their inclusions."
Wendy Taylor | EurekAlert!
How much biomass grows in the savannah?
16.02.2017 | Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena
Canadian glaciers now major contributor to sea level change, UCI study shows
15.02.2017 | University of California - Irvine
In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport
Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...
The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.
The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...
Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...
Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".
Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...
13.02.2017 | Event News
10.02.2017 | Event News
09.02.2017 | Event News
17.02.2017 | Medical Engineering
17.02.2017 | Medical Engineering
17.02.2017 | Health and Medicine