Not so much for planetary scientists. That's because they needed a highly stable, off-the-shelf-type system that could accurately point their instruments and then track planetary targets as they moved in the solar system.
This photograph shows the Wallops Arc Second Pointer payload suspended from a crane during an earlier test deployment.
Image Credit: NASA
That device now exists.
NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Wallops Island, Va., has designed a new pointing system — the Wallops Arc Second Pointer (WASP) — that can point balloon-borne scientific instruments at targets with sub arc-second accuracy and stability. A planetary scientist — interested in finding less-expensive platforms for observing Jupiter and other extraterrestrial bodies — now plans to test drive the device later this year.
"Arc-second pointing is unbelievably precise," said David Stuchlik, the WASP project manager. "Some compare it to the ability to find and track an object that is the diameter of a dime from two miles away."
WASP is designed to be a highly flexible, standardized system capable of supporting many science payloads, Stuchlik added. Its development frees scientists, who in the past had to develop their own pointing systems, to instead focus on instrument development. Given the technology's potential, the WASP team has received NASA Science Mission Directorate funding to further enhance the new capability as a standard support system.
First tested in 2011 and then again in 2012, the most recent test flight occurred from Fort Sumner, N.M., in September 2013. During that flight, a 30-story balloon lifted an engineering test unit of the HyperSpectral Imager for Climate Science (HySICS) to an altitude of nearly 122,000 feet, far above the majority of Earth's atmosphere. From this vantage point, WASP precisely pointed HySICS so that it could measure Earth, the sun and the moon.
Developed by Greg Kopp of the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, the imager collected radiance data for nearly half of its eight-and-a-half hour flight, demonstrating improved techniques for future space-based radiance tests. Kopp now is preparing his imager for another balloon flight this September.
OPIS Inaugural Flight
Also planned for September is the inaugural flight of the Observatory for Planetary Investigations from the Stratosphere (OPIS) — a notable event because so few planetary scientists have in the past employed less-expensive balloon craft to fly their instruments.
"Planetary scientists really haven't been involved in balloon payloads," said OPIS Principal Investigator Terry Hurford. "Planetary targets move with respect to the stars in the background. And because you need to track them to gather measurements, you need a system that can accurately point and then follow a target. These challenges are why planetary scientists haven't gotten into the balloon game."
For other scientific disciplines, the tolerances aren't as tight, he added. The targets are either large, like the sun, or plentiful, like the stars, thereby making it much easier to target an object and then maintain a lock onto that object, Hurford said.
Now that Stuchlik and his team have proven WASP's effectiveness, Hurford wants to show that the system is equally as effective for planetary science when he flies his balloon-borne OPIS high above Earth's surface to study Jupiter and planets beyond the solar system.
He is using Goddard Internal Research and Development program funding to repurpose a telescope mirror originally built to calibrate the Goddard-developed Composite Infrared Spectrometer now flying on NASA's Cassini mission. He also is using NASA support to help upgrade WASP's existing avionics system to assure planetary tracking and expand its ability to follow targets above 25 degrees of elevation.
Like HySICS, OPIS will launch from Fort Sumner. Provided stratospheric winds cooperate, the mission is expected to last up to 24 hours during which Hurford plans to gather time measurements of Jupiter's atmospheric structure. His other objectives during his 24-hour flight are to observe a transit of an extrasolar planet and the rotation of an asteroid.
"Time for planetary observations on ground-based observatories is difficult to obtain," Hurford said. "Moreover, high-altitude balloons above 95 percent of the Earth's atmosphere allow for observations in the ultraviolet- and infrared-wavelength bands, which aren't possible with ground-based telescopes. High-altitude balloons offer us a unique, low-cost platform to carry out our planetary observations. This effort provides us with a unique opportunity to build a capability that we can leverage for future opportunities. WASP gives us a new platform," he said.Lori Keesey
Lori Keesey | EurekAlert!
For a rare prairie orchid, science is making climate change local
12.02.2016 | USDA Forest Service - Northern Research Station
NASA sees Tropical Cyclone Winston form
12.02.2016 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
Today, plants and microorganisms are heavily used for the production of medicinal products. The production of biopharmaceuticals in plants, also referred to as “Molecular Pharming”, represents a continuously growing field of plant biotechnology. Preferred host organisms include yeast and crop plants, such as maize and potato – plants with high demands. With the help of a special algal strain, the research team of Prof. Ralph Bock at the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology in Potsdam strives to develop a more efficient and resource-saving system for the production of medicines and vaccines. They tested its practicality by synthesizing a component of a potential AIDS vaccine.
The use of plants and microorganisms to produce pharmaceuticals is nothing new. In 1982, bacteria were genetically modified to produce human insulin, a drug...
Atomic clock experts from the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) are the first research group in the world to have built an optical single-ion clock which attains an accuracy which had only been predicted theoretically so far. Their optical ytterbium clock achieved a relative systematic measurement uncertainty of 3 E-18. The results have been published in the current issue of the scientific journal "Physical Review Letters".
Atomic clock experts from the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) are the first research group in the world to have built an optical single-ion clock...
The University of Würzburg has two new space projects in the pipeline which are concerned with the observation of planets and autonomous fault correction aboard satellites. The German Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy funds the projects with around 1.6 million euros.
Detecting tornadoes that sweep across Mars. Discovering meteors that fall to Earth. Investigating strange lightning that flashes from Earth's atmosphere into...
Physicists from Saarland University and the ESPCI in Paris have shown how liquids on solid surfaces can be made to slide over the surface a bit like a bobsleigh on ice. The key is to apply a coating at the boundary between the liquid and the surface that induces the liquid to slip. This results in an increase in the average flow velocity of the liquid and its throughput. This was demonstrated by studying the behaviour of droplets on surfaces with different coatings as they evolved into the equilibrium state. The results could prove useful in optimizing industrial processes, such as the extrusion of plastics.
The study has been published in the respected academic journal PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America).
Exceeding critical temperature limits in the Southern Ocean may cause the collapse of ice sheets and a sharp rise in sea levels
A future warming of the Southern Ocean caused by rising greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere may severely disrupt the stability of the West...
12.02.2016 | Event News
09.02.2016 | Event News
02.02.2016 | Event News
12.02.2016 | Physics and Astronomy
12.02.2016 | Life Sciences
12.02.2016 | Medical Engineering