A new study led by scientists at the University of Miami (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science uncovered a previously unknown magma chamber deep below the most active volcano in the world – Kilauea. This is the first geophysical observation that large magma chambers exist in the deeper parts of the volcano system.
Scientists analyzed the seismic waves that travel through the volcano to understand the internal structure of the volcanic system. Using the seismic data, the researchers developed a three-dimensional velocity model of a magma anomaly to determine the size, depth and composition of the lava chamber, which is several kilometers in diameter and located at a depth of 8-11 km (5 – 6.8 miles).
"It was known before that Kilauea had small, shallow magma chambers," said Guoqing Lin, UM Rosenstiel School assistant professor of geology and geophysics and lead author of the study. "This study is the first geophysical observation that large magma chambers exist in the deep oceanic crust below."
The study also showed that the deep chamber is composed of "magma mush," a mixture of 10-percent magma and 90-percent rock. The crustal magma reservoir below Kilauea is similar to those widely observed beneath volcanoes located at mid-ocean ridges.
"Understanding these magma bodies are a high priority because of the hazard posed by the volcano," said Falk Amelung, co-author and professor of geology and geophysics at the UM Rosenstiel School. "Kilauea volcano produces many small earthquakes and paying particular attention to new seismic activity near this body will help us to better understand where future lava eruptions will come from."
Scientists are still unraveling the mysteries of the deep internal network of magma chambers and lava tubes of Kilauea, which has been in continuous eruption for more than 30 years and is currently the most active volcano in the world.
The study, titled "Seismic evidence for a crustal magma reservoir beneath the upper east rift zone of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii," was recently published in the online edition of the journal Geology. The study co-authors include: Lin, Amelung, Yan Lavalee of the University of Liverpool and Paul G. Okubo of the U.S. Geological Survey in Hawaii. The National Science Foundation funded the study.Image: http://gallery.usgs.gov/images/08_18_2010/h41Ogs6FEa_08_18_2010/large/HVO
Diana Udel | EurekAlert!
Predicting unpredictability: Information theory offers new way to read ice cores
07.12.2016 | Santa Fe Institute
Sea ice hit record lows in November
07.12.2016 | University of Colorado at Boulder
Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. The effect is due to the structure of the materials used. The researchers have now published their work in the journal Science.
Topological insulators are currently the hot topic in physics according to the newspaper Neue Zürcher Zeitung. Only a few weeks ago, their importance was...
In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
09.12.2016 | Life Sciences
09.12.2016 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation
09.12.2016 | Health and Medicine