Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Tremors between slip events: More evidence of great quake danger to Seattle

17.12.2009
For most of a decade, scientists have documented unfelt and slow-moving seismic events, called episodic tremor and slip, showing up in regular cycles under the Olympic Peninsula of Washington state and Vancouver Island in British Columbia. They last three weeks on average and release as much energy as a magnitude 6.5 earthquake.

Now scientists have discovered more small events, lasting one to 70 hours, which occur in somewhat regular patterns during the 15-month intervals between episodic tremor and slip events.

"There appear to be tremor swarms that repeat, both in terms of their duration and in where they are. We haven't seen enough yet to say whether they repeat in regular time intervals," said Kenneth Creager, a University of Washington professor of Earth and space sciences.

"This continues to paint the picture of the possibility that a megathrust earthquake can occur closer to the Puget Sound region than was thought just a few years ago," he said.

The phenomenon, which Creager will discuss today (Dec. 15) during a presentation at the annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union, is the latest piece of evidence as scientists puzzle out exactly what is happening deep below the surface near Washington state's populous Interstate 5 corridor. He noted that the work shows that tremor swarms follow a size distribution similar to earthquakes, with larger events occurring much less frequently than small events.

The Cascadia subduction zone, where the Juan de Fuca tectonic plate dips beneath the North American plate, runs just off the Pacific coast from northern California to the northern edge of Vancouver Island in British Columbia. It can be the source of massive megathrust earthquakes on the order of magnitude 9 about every 500 years. The last one occurred in 1700.

The fault along the central Washington coast, where the Pacific and Juan de Fuca plates are locked together most of the time but break apart from each other during a powerful megathrust earthquake, was believed to lie 80 miles or more from the Seattle area. But research has shown that the locked zone extends deeper and farther east than previously thought, bringing the edge of the rupture zone beneath the Olympic Mountains, perhaps 40 miles closer to the Seattle area. It is this locked area that can rupture to produce a megathrust earthquake that causes widespread heavy damage, comparable to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake or the great Alaska quake of 1964.

Episodic tremor and slip events appear to occur at the interface of the plates as they gradually descend beneath the surface, at depths of about 19 to 28 miles. The smaller tremors between slip episodes, what Creager refers to as inter-episodic tremor and slip events, appear to occur at the interface of the plates a little farther east and a few miles deeper.

"There's a whole range of events that take place on or near the plate interface. Each improvement in data collection and processing reveals new discoveries," Creager said.

Episodic tremor and slip events often begin in the area of Olympia, Wash., and move northward to southern Vancouver Island over a three-week period, but scientists have yet to pin down such patterns among the smaller tremors that occur between the slip events.

Because the two tectonic plates are locked together, stress builds at their interface as they collide with each other at a rate of about 4 centimeters (1.6 inches) a year. The slip events and smaller tremors ease some of that stress locally, Creager said, but they don't appear to account for all of it.

"Each one of these slip events puts more stress on the area of the plate boundary where megathrust earthquakes occur, which is shallower and farther to the west, bringing you closer to the next big event," he said. "There's nothing to tell you which one will be the trigger."

Since the slip events and intervening small tremors don't accommodate all of the stress built up on the fault, scientists are getting a better idea of just what the hazard from a megathrust earthquake is in the Seattle area. One benefit from that is the ability to revise building codes so structures will be better able to withstand the immense shaking from a great quake, particularly if the source is substantially closer to the city than it was previously expected to be.

"We'd like to go back and see how much slip has occurred in these slip events, compared to how much should have occurred," Creager said. "Then we'll know how much of that slip will have to be accommodated in a megathrust earthquake, or through other processes."

For more information, contact Creager at 206-685-2803 or creager@ess.washington.edu.

Vince Stricherz | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.washington.edu

Further reports about: Olympic Pacific coral Tremors Vancouver Island tectonic plate

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A Map of the Cell’s Power Station

18.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Engineering team images tiny quasicrystals as they form

18.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Researchers printed graphene-like materials with inkjet

18.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>