Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

The Frozen Truth about Glaciers, Climate Change and Our Future

18.03.2014

University of Cincinnati researchers use years of Tibet and Himalayas analysis to better predict glacial response to global climate change.

Lewis Owen has been scraping out icy fragments of history's truth from one of the most glaciated regions on Earth for the past 25 years.


The University of Cincinnati's Lewis Owen has been studying glaciers in Tibet and the Himalayas for 25 years.


Glaciers have a profound effect on the hydrology of the region.

His frequent excursions to Tibet and the Himalayas have led the University of Cincinnati professor of geology to some cold, hard facts.

Owen knows climate change is immortal – fluctuating across millennia, patiently building toward moments when circumstances are ripe for apocalypse. It was true thousands of years ago, when rapid climate change had profound effects on landscapes and the creatures that lived on them. That scenario could be true again, if the past is ignored.

"We're interested in how glaciers change over time as climate has changed, because we're in a changing climate at the moment, dominantly because of increased human activity," Owen says. "From understanding past glacial changes, we can understand how glaciers may change in the future."

Owen, head of UC's Department of Geology, is among a team of researchers at the university who have been gathering and studying years of data on Tibet and the Himalayas. Members of the group contributed to two research papers that will be published in the March 15 edition (Vol. 88) of Quaternary Science Reviews, an international, multidisciplinary research and review journal.

Owen is primary author on "Nature and Timing of Quaternary Glaciation in the Himalayan-Tibetan Orogen," and Madhav Murari, a post-doctoral fellow at UC, is primary author on "Timing and Climatic Drivers for Glaciation Across Monsoon-Influenced Regions of the Himalayan-Tibetan Orogen." The National Science Foundation and National Geographic Society have supported the research efforts of Owen and his team.

BIG DIFFERENCES IN HUGE GLACIERS

Glaciers are fickle beasts. They don't all respond to climate change in the same way. Some recede while others surge, and these changes can have a profound effect on landscapes – at times to dangerous effect. Glacial lakes, which swell as glaciers melt, can drain in catastrophic fashion, known as glacial lake flood outburst. Owen says consequences of such outbursts can be severe, wiping out entire villages or ruining acres of farmland. Comparing glacial areas and anticipating melt is a complex problem but one that underscores the importance of his research, Owen says.

"Glaciers will vary from one side of the mountain range to the next very differently. As part of our research, we're building up a standard scheme that people can use to compare their glaciated areas," Owen says.

The environmental stakes are as high as the mountains themselves. Tibet and the Himalayas are nearly one-third the size of the contiguous 48 U.S. states, and nearly a billion people live in the mountains' shadow. Waters from the glaciers flow into the Indo-Gangetic Plain, a fertile region including parts of Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan, and bordered to the north by China. The source water for some of the world's largest rivers – the Indus, Ganges, Yangtze and Yellow – is derived from these glaciers.

On an even broader scale, Owen notes the Himalayas and Tibet also have a major influence on regional and global atmospheric circulation, magnifying their importance in understanding the dynamics of global environmental change.

"We want to be able to more accurately construct where glaciers are going to melt in the future and to what degree they are going to melt," Owen says. "We want to be able to plan and prioritize where we protect from glaciers melting."

PASSING THE TEST OF TIME

To help predict the future, Owen and his colleagues look to the past. Researchers in Owen's group use advanced geochronology techniques such as cosmogenic and luminescence dating to more accurately determine the age of their samples. The results give scientists a clearer picture of how to reconstruct glacial response to climate change from as far back as when the glaciers were first formed many hundreds of thousands of years ago in the Quaternary Period, a geologic time period that includes the ice ages and extends to present day.

In essence, without knowing what glaciers were doing in the past, Owen says, computer models of global climate change can't be accurately tested.

"Our studies are providing a framework for understanding past glaciation to implicate future changes," Owen says. "We want to be able to manage mountain areas and sustain them so future generations can live and work and play up there."

UC alumnus Jason Dortch of the University of Manchester in England contributed to Owen's paper. Additional contributors to Murari's paper are Owen, associate professor Craig Dietsch and assistant professor Amy Townsend-Small of UC; Dortch of the University of Manchester; Marc Cafee of Purdue University; Markus Fuchs of Justus-Liebig-University Giessen in Germany; William Haneberg of Fugro GeoConsulting; and Milap Sharma of Jawaharlal Nehru University in India.

QUATERNARY AND ANTHROPOCENE RESEARCH GROUP

Several members of Owen's Tibetan Himalayan research team are part of the University of Cincinnati's Quaternary and Anthropocene Research Group (QARG), a multidisciplinary group focused on integrative research and teaching of geology, paleontology, climatology, anthropology, ecology and landscape evolution across recent geological past, including the ascent of humankind. QARG is a premier, public, urban research group dedicated to undergraduate, graduate and professional education; experience-based learning; and research in Quaternary science and the study of the Anthropocene. QARG is part of the UC Forward innovation collaborative and another example of what it means to be Cincinnati Smart – a unique and effective way of learning that combines excellent classroom experiences with real-world opportunities through experiential options made possible at UC.

Tom Robinette | EurekAlert!

Further reports about: Anthropocene Change Climate Frozen Himalayas Tibet climate changes glaciers

More articles from Earth Sciences:

nachricht How much biomass grows in the savannah?
16.02.2017 | Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena

nachricht Canadian glaciers now major contributor to sea level change, UCI study shows
15.02.2017 | University of California - Irvine

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Biocompatible 3-D tracking system has potential to improve robot-assisted surgery

17.02.2017 | Medical Engineering

Real-time MRI analysis powered by supercomputers

17.02.2017 | Medical Engineering

Antibiotic effective against drug-resistant bacteria in pediatric skin infections

17.02.2017 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>