Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

South Dakota Scientists Help Retrieve Ice Core From West Antarctica

12.02.2013
A slice of ice from 17,500 years ago can help scientists figure out how the Earth came out of the Ice Age and how climate change can happen in the future, according to South Dakota State University Professor Jihong Cole-Dai of the chemistry and biochemistry department. He and graduate student, Kari Peterson, spent nearly a month in Antarctica during Christmas break as part of the West Antarctica Ice Sheet Divide Ice Core project.

The main goal of the ice core project, Cole-Dai said “was to get an ice core more than two miles deep to give us nearly 70,000 years of history of the Earth’s climate.”

The National Science Foundation-funded project, which began eight years ago, involves more than 20 universities and national laboratories. The SDSU Ice Core and Environment Chemistry Lab, headed by Cole-Dai, has been a part of the project since 2006.

It took eight years to build the field camp and to collect the original ice core, because the harsh Antarctica conditions allow only a 60-day window each year in which to work. That task was completed in January 2012.

“This year was significant because of the completion of additional field work,” Cole-Dai said. Scientists wanted more ice to do further work on specific time periods. To do so, the team retrieved additional ice from five spots along the original ice core hole, while also leaving the lower portion of the hole intact.

“That in itself was quite a challenge and accomplishment,” Cole-Dai said. His former postdoctoral researcher, David Ferris, was part of the drilling team. Ferris became part of the project through the SDSU Ice Core and Environment Chemistry Lab during his doctoral work.

To accomplish this task, engineers had to design a special bit and drilling apparatus that used an actuator to push off to the side of the original borehole, explained Tony Wendricks, project coordinator for the Ice Drilling Design and Operations group at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Ferris has worked on ice drilling team for three years and on the core handling team for one year.

“It’s a tricky thing – to maintain the parent hole,” Wendricks said.

“It’s never been done anywhere in the world,” Cole-Dai said. “You have a tool hanging at the end of a two-mile-long rope or cable and you want it to do very precise things, to move one degree in the direction you want and to bring the ice out.”

When the drillers brought up cylinders of ice, they handed them over to the core-processing team, Cole-Dai said. He and Peterson were on the team that took measurements and logged the information regarding the cores from the designated time periods. Then they packaged the ice cylinders to transport to the National Ice Core Laboratory in Denver.

Once the cores have been processed in Denver, each university lab will get its slice of the ice for analysis, which will likely take a year, Cole-Dai said. His SDSU team will work on a section of ice from 17,500 years ago that offers clues as to why the Earth began to emerge from the Ice Age.

At that point in history, Cole-Dai said, “something big happened – a large volcanic eruption or a number of them.” Others speculate that it might have been an object from outer space that struck the Earth.

“We want to gather more information from the ice and hopefully it will lead to better ideas, or support some of the ideas and disprove some of the others,” Cole-Dai said.

For this research, Cole-Dai’s team collaborates with a lab at the University of California, San Diego. SDSU analyzes the trace chemicals, while the California lab does the isotope measurements. Cole-Dai has three doctoral students working in his lab; two of them have been to Antarctica.

Researchers found fluoride, which is commonly associated with a volcanic eruption, in a previous ice core, explained Peterson. However, the levels were higher than those expected from an eruption. For her dissertation, Peterson will analyze the fluoride levels in the replicate core to confirm the original results.

In addition, Peterson took samples from a snow pit more than eight feet deep to look for signs of two volcanic eruptions a couple of years ago, one in Indonesia and one in Africa. “The eruptions were pretty small but very powerful,” Peterson said, “so the plume may have gotten into the stratosphere.”

When this happens, Cole-Dai explained, the wind patterns can carry the volcanic material to the entire world, including both poles. Because the snow at the Western Antarctica drill site never melts, the ice contains a history of the changing atmospheric environment and of the dynamic climate. As for the location to drill the ice core in the center of West Antarctica, Cole-Dai explained, “It’s like the continental divide. Ice flows away from this point; it doesn’t get ice from other locations.”

By measuring the kinds and quantities of chemicals in the ice cores and determining how those change over time, scientists can study the events that lead to global climate change, Cole-Dai said. This will lead to a better understanding of how human activities can influence climate. By studying the Earth’s past, Cole-Dai said, “we can better predict the future.”

About SDSU’s Ice Core and Environmental Chemistry Lab
SDSU students and faculty in the Ice Core and Environmental Chemistry Lab (ICECL) conduct basic research in atmospheric chemistry and on the global atmospheric environment and climate using snow and ice core samples from the polar regions of Earth. ICECL is a part of the research program of SDSU Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry.
About South Dakota State University
Founded in 1881, South Dakota State University is the state’s Morrill Act land-grant institution as well as its largest, most comprehensive school of higher education. SDSU confers degrees from eight different colleges representing more than 175 majors, minors and specializations. The institution also offers 29 master’s degree programs, 12 Ph.D. and two professional programs.
The work of the university is carried out on a residential campus in Brookings, at sites in Sioux Falls, Pierre and Rapid City, and through Cooperative Extension offices and Agricultural Experiment Station research sites across the state.

Jihong.Cole-Dai@SDSTATE.EDU

Jihong Cole-Dai | Newswise
Further information:
http://www.sdstate.edu

More articles from Earth Sciences:

nachricht Filling the gap: High-latitude volcanic eruptions also have global impact
20.11.2017 | Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences

nachricht Antarctic landscape insights keep ice loss forecasts on the radar
20.11.2017 | University of Edinburgh

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Nanoparticles help with malaria diagnosis – new rapid test in development

The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.

Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

Im Focus: Researchers Develop Data Bus for Quantum Computer

The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.

Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Previous evidence of water on mars now identified as grainflows

21.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

NASA's James Webb Space Telescope completes final cryogenic testing

21.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

New catalyst controls activation of a carbon-hydrogen bond

21.11.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>