Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Scientists Work to Improve Predictions of How Soil Carbon Responds to Climate Change

06.10.2011
Soils store more carbon than the atmosphere and living plants. But scientists don’t know why some organic compounds persist for centuries or even thousands of years in soils, while others quickly decompose.

This longstanding mystery is addressed in a review by the University of Zurich’s Michael Schmidt, Susan Trumbore from Max Planck Institute of Biogeochemistry in Jena and an international team of scientists that is published in the October 6 issue of the journal Nature. The researchers suggest ways to improve the ability to predict how soil carbon responds to climate change as well as land use and vegetation change.


Soil Profile

For many years, scientists thought that organic matter persists in soil because some of it forms very complex molecular structures that were too difficult for organisms to break down.

In their Nature review, however, Schmidt and colleagues point out how recent advances, from imaging the molecules in soils to experiments that track decomposition of specific compounds, show this view to be mistaken. For example, the major forms of organic matter in soils are in the forms of simple bio-molecules, rather than large macromolecules. Charred residues from fire provide a possible exception, but even these have been shown to decompose.

If molecular structure is not causing organic molecules to persist, what is? The team contends that the average time carbon resides in soil is a property of the interactions between organic matter and the surrounding soil ecosystem. Factors like physical isolation, recycling, or protection of molecules by minerals or physical structures like aggregates, or even unfavorable local temperature or moisture conditions, can all play a role in reducing the probability that a given molecule will decompose.

Although soils are teeming with bacteria (there are approximately 40 million cells in a gram of soil), they typically occupy less than 1% of the available volume, and are usually clustered in ‘hot spots’. In some situations where microbial populations are sparse, for example in deep soils or far from roots, it may just require a long time for suitable conditions to arise that allow a molecule to be broken down. In other locations, freezing temperatures may inhibit microbial action.

Why is this important? Currently, models we use to predict how global soil carbon will respond to cli-mate change include little mechanistic understanding and instead use simple factors like temperature dependence that indicate acceleration of decomposition in a warmer world. This assumes that temperature is the major limitation to decomposition, whereas other factors may dominate.

The decomposition-warming feedback predicts large soil carbon losses and an amplification of global warming, but in fact the authors argue this approach is too simplistic. In the Nature review, the scientists make several suggestions where current improvements in understanding could be built into models, improving our ability to predict how soil carbon responds not only to climate but to land use or vegetation change. (ST)

Original data are published in:
Michael W. I. Schmidt, Margaret S. Torn, Samuel Abiven, Thorsten Dittmar, Georg Guggenberger, Ivan A. Janssens, Markus Kleber, Ingrid Kögel-Knabner, Johannes Lehmann, David A. C. Manning, Paolo Nannipieri, Daniel P. Rasse,
Steve Weiner & Susan E. Trumbore
Persistence of soil organic matter as an ecosystem property
Nature, 6. Oktober 2011, doi:10.1038/nature10386
Contact:
Susan Trumbore
Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry
Hans-Knoell-Str. 10
07745 Jena, Germany
Ph.: +49 3641 576-110
Fax: +49 3641 577-100
trumbore@bgc-jena.mpg.de
Susanne Hermsmeier
Public Relations
Ph.: +49 3641 576-801
sherms@bgc-jena.mpg.de
Eberhard Fritz
Research Coordination
Ph.: +49 3641 576-800
efritz@bgc-jena.mpg.de

Susanne Hermsmeier | Max-Planck-Institut
Further information:
http://www.bgc-jena.mpg.de

More articles from Earth Sciences:

nachricht Satellites reveal bird habitat loss in California
28.03.2017 | Duke University

nachricht Northern oceans pumped CO2 into the atmosphere
27.03.2017 | CAGE - Center for Arctic Gas Hydrate, Climate and Environment

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A Challenging European Research Project to Develop New Tiny Microscopes

The Institute of Semiconductor Technology and the Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, both members of the Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology (LENA), at Technische Universität Braunschweig are partners in a new European research project entitled ChipScope, which aims to develop a completely new and extremely small optical microscope capable of observing the interior of living cells in real time. A consortium of 7 partners from 5 countries will tackle this issue with very ambitious objectives during a four-year research program.

To demonstrate the usefulness of this new scientific tool, at the end of the project the developed chip-sized microscope will be used to observe in real-time...

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Researchers create artificial materials atom-by-atom

28.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Researchers show p300 protein may suppress leukemia in MDS patients

28.03.2017 | Health and Medicine

Asian dust providing key nutrients for California's giant sequoias

28.03.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>